1.2- Introduction to Orange trees 1.2.1- Etymology The word Orange in English is derived from the Sanskrit word nāraṅga for "orange tree", probably of Dravidian origin. The Sanskrit word reached European languages through Persian (nārang) and its Arabic derivative (nāranj). The word Orange entered Middle English from Old French and Anglo-Normanorenge. The earliest recorded use of the word in English is from the 13th century and referred to the fruit. The color was named after the fruit, and the first recorded use of orange as a color name in English was in 1512. The word Orange is both a noun and an adjective in the English language. In both cases, it refers primarily to the orange fruit and the colour orange, but has many other derivative meanings.
1.2.2- Orange Trees Different names have been given to the many varieties of the Citrus genus. Orange applies primarily to the sweet orange - Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. Like all other citrus fruits, the sweet orange is non-climacteric. The orange (specifically, the sweet orange) is the fruit of the Citrusspecies Citrussinensis in the FamilyRutaceae. The fruit of the Citrus sinensisis considered a sweet orange, whereas the fruit of the Citrus aurantium is considered a bitter orange. The orange is a hybrid, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata), which has been cultivated since ancient times. The Citrus sinensisis subdivided into four classes with distinct characteristics: common oranges, blood or pigmented oranges, navel oranges, and acidless oranges. Other citrus species also known as oranges are: - The bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), also known as Seville orange, sour orange - especially when used as rootstock for a sweet orange tree, bigarade orange and marmalade orange; - The bergamot orange (Citrus bergamia Risso). It is grown mainly in Italy for its peel, which is used to flavor Earl Greytea; - The trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), sometimes included in the Genus (classified as Citrus trifoliata). It often serves as a rootstock for sweet orange trees, especially as a hybrid with other Citruscultivars. - The mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata). It has an enormous number of cultivars, most notably the satsuma (Citrus unshiu), the tangerine (Citrus tangerina) and the clementine (Citrus clementina).
1.2.3- Characteristics of Orange Trees The orange tree is an evergreen, flowering tree, with an average height of 9 to 10 m (30 to 33 ft), although some very old specimens can reach 15 m (49 ft). Its oval leaves, alternately arranged, are 4 to 10 cm (1.6 to 3.9 in) long and have crenulate margins. Although the sweet orange presents different sizes and shapes varying from spherical to oblong, it generally has ten segments (carpels) inside, and contains up to six seeds (or pips) and a porous white tissue - called pith or, more properly, mesocarp or albedo - lines its rind. When unripe, the fruit is green. The grainy irregular rind of the ripe fruit can range from bright orange to yellow-orange, but frequently retains green patches or, under warm climate conditions, remains entirely green. Orange trees generally are grafted. The bottom of the tree, including the roots and trunk, is called rootstock, while the fruit-bearing top has two different names: budwood (when referring to the process of grafting) and scion (when mentioning the variety of orange).
2- The Popular Species and Cultivars of Orange trees on the World
2.1- Species Common oranges (Citrus sinensis) 2.1.1- Overview Common oranges (also called "white", "round", or "blond" oranges) constitute about two-thirds of all the orange production. The majority of this crop is used mostly for juice extraction. The botanical name of the common orange isCitrus sinensis. There are about 600 cultivars of Species Citrus sinensis, two major cultivars of them are Valencia and Trovita. Most of the juice oranges you will buy will be Valencias. Because the juice of common oranges is sweet and does not have a bitter aftertaste or turn bitter when stored-like some other sweet oranges, the common orange is ideal for fresh and frozen juice. 2.1.2- The Varieties of Common Oranges a- Variety Valencia Common Orange (a variety ofCitrus sinensis ) + Main Cultivars of Valencia Orange The Valencia common orange is a late-season fruit, and therefore a popular variety when navel oranges are out of season. This is why an anthropomorphic orange was chosen as the mascot for the 1982 FIFA World Cup, held in Spain. The mascot was named Naranjito ("little orange") and wore the colors of the Spanish national football team. The Valencia orange originated in Portugal but is named for a region in Spain where it is widely cultivated. It can ripen in midwinter in warm regions of its range and at the beginning of summer in cooler regions. The Valencia common orange is a round or slightly oval medium-large orange that has a thin, smooth rind. Its juice is a delightful balance of sweet and acid tastes. It is slightly more acid than the Washington navel. The Valencia has a deep golden rind and few seeds. It can be eaten out of hand, but it is not easy to peel. It has abundant juice. The Valencia is cultivated in Spain, South America, Australia, South Africa, and in Arizona and Texas in the United States. +Other cultivars of Valencia Orange - Hart's Tardiff Valencia: this variety from the Azores Islands, grown in E. H. Hart of Federal Point, Florida since 1870. There are three improved Valencia cultivars that are also popular: - Delta is a seedless South African variety that ripens 2 to 3 weeks earlier than the Valencia. - Midknight is another seedless South African variety, a big and full orange flavor. - Rohde Red is a deep-orange Valencia type that is also seedless. 2.1.3- Other varieties and cultivars of common oranges + Other Important varieties - Variety Trovita sweet orange Trovita (VI 116) originated at the Citrus Research Center in Riverside in 1916 as a seedling from a fallen fruit that was presumed to have come from a Washington navel tree. - VarietyHamlin orange This cultivar was discovered by A. G. Hamlin near Glenwood, Florida, in 1879. The tree produce edible fruit, but too small for commercial use. - Variety Jaffa, also called Shamouti, is a medium-large to large, thick-skinned common orange that is nearly seedless. - VarietyMarrs is a medium-size, low-acid orange that is juicy but best eaten out of hand. - Variety Parson Brown is a small, yellow-fleshed common orange. It is seedy and is best used for juicing. It has an uneven flavor. It ripens from fall into winter. - Variety Pineapple is a small to medium-size orange with a glossy deep-orange colored rind that is quite seedy. It has a sweet flavor and rich pineapple aroma. It has few to many seeds and is popular for juicing. It ripens fall into winter. + Other popular cultivars of common oranges - Belladonna: grown in Italy - Berna: grown mainly in Spain - Biondo Comune ("ordinary blond"): widely grown in the Mediterranean basin. - Biondo Riccio: grown in Italy. - Cadanera: a seedless orange of excellent flavor grown in Algeria, Morocco, and Spain - Calabrese or Calabrese Ovale: grown in Italy. - Carvalhal: grown in Portugal. - Castellana: grown in Spain. - Cherry Orange: grown in southern China and Japan. - Clanor: grown in South Africa. - Dom João: grown in Portugal. - Fukuhara: grown in Japan. - Gardner: grown in Florida, USA. - Homosassa: grown in Florida, USA. - Jaffa orange: grown in the Middle East, also known as "Shamouti". - Jincheng: the most popular orange in China. - Joppa: grown in South Africa and Texas. - Khettmali: grown in Israel and Lebanon. - Kona: a type of Valencia orange introduced in Hawaii in 1792. - Lue Gim Gong: originally considered a hybrid, grown in Florida, USA, since 2006. - Macetera: grown in Spain, it is known for its unique flavor. - Malta: grown in Pakistan. - Maltaise Blonde: grown in north Africa. - Maltaise Ovale: grown in South Africa and in California, USA. - Marrs: grown in Texas, California and Iran, it is relatively low in acid. - Midsweet: grown in Florida, USA. - Moro Tarocco: grown in Italy, it is oval, resembles a tangelo. - Mosambi: grown in India and Pakistan, it is so low in acid and insipid as acidless. - Narinja: grown in Andhra, South India. - Parson Brown: grown in Florida - USA, Mexico, and Turkey. - Pera: grown in Brazil, it is very popular in the Brazilian citrus industry. - Pera Coroa: grown in Brazil. - Pera Natal: grown in Brazil. - Pera Rio: grown in Brazil. - Pineapple: grown in North and South America and India. - Premier: grown in South Africa. - Rhode Red: is a mutation of the Valencia orange; it was discovered by Paul Rhode in 1955 in a grove near Sebring, Florida. - Roble: named from Spain Joseph Roble, now is in Roble's Park in Tampa, Florida. - Queen: grown in South Africa. - Salustiana: grown in North Africa. - Sathgudi: grown in Tamil Nadu, South India - Seleta, Selecta: grown in Australia and Brazil, it is high in acid. - Shamouti Masry: grown in Egypt; it is a richer variety of Shamouti. - Sunstar: grown in Florida. - Tomango: grown in South Africa. - Verna: grown in Algeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Spain. - Vicieda: grown in Algeria, Morocco, and Spain. - Westin: grown in Brazil. b- Variety Navel oranges (a Variety of Citrus sinensis) + Main cultivars Cara cara oranges (also called "red navel") are a type of navel orange grown mainly in Venezuela, South Africa and in California's San Joaquin Valley. They are sweet and comparatively low in acid, with a bright orange rind similar to that of other navels, but their flesh is distinctively pinkish red. It is believed that they have originated as a cross between the Washington navel and the Brazilian Bahia navel, and they were discovered at the Hacienda Cara Cara in Valencia, Venezuela, in 1976. South African cara caras are ready for market in early August, while Venezuelan fruits arrive in October and Californian fruits in late November. + Other cultivars of navel orange - Bahianinha or Bahia - Dream Navel - Late Navel - Washington or California Navel c- Variety Blood oranges (a Variety ofCitrus sinensis) + Main cultivar Blood orange are a natural mutation of C. sinensis, although today the majority of them are hybrids. High concentrations of anthocyanin give the rind, flesh, and juice of the fruit their characteristic dark red color. Blood oranges were first discovered and cultivated in Sicily in the fifteenth century. Since then they have spread worldwide, but are grown especially in Spain and Italy-under the names of sanguina and sanguinella, respectively. The blood orange, with its distinct color and flavor, is generally considered the most delicious juice orange, and has found a niche as an ingredient variation in traditional Seville marmalade. + Other cultivars of blood oranges - Maltese: a small and highly colored variety, generally thought to have originated in Italy. It also is grown extensively in southern Spain and Malta. - Moro: originally from Sicily, it is common throughout Italy. - Sanguinelli: a mutant of the Doble Fina, discovered in 1929 in Almenara, in the Castellón province of Spain. It is cultivated in Sicily. - Scarlet navel: a variety with the same mutation as the navel orange. - Tarocco: a relatively new variety developed in Italy. d - Variety Acidless oranges (a Variety ofCitrus sinensis) Acidless oranges are an early season fruit with very low levels of acid. They also are called "sweet" oranges in the US, with similar names in other countries: douce in France, sucrenain Spain, lima in Brazil... The lack of acid, which protects orange juice against spoilage in other groups, renders them generally unfit for processing as juice, so they are primarily eaten. They remain profitable in areas of local consumption, but rapid spoilage renders them unsuitable for export to major population centres of Europe, Asia, or the United States. 2.2- Other citrus species also known as oranges are: - The bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), also known as Seville orange, sour orange - especially when used as rootstock for a sweet orange tree -, bigarade orange and marmalade orange; - The bergamot orange (Citrus bergamia Risso). It is grown mainly in Italy for its peel, which is used to flavor Earl Greytea; - The trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), sometimes included in the genus (classified as Citrus trifoliata). It often serves as a rootstock for sweet orange trees, especially as a hybrid with other Citruscultivars. The trifoliate orange is a thorny shrub or small tree grown mostly as an ornamental plant or to set up hedges. It bears a downy fruit similar to a small citrus, used to make marmalade. It is native to northern China and Korea, and is also known as "Chinese bitter orange" or "hardy orange" because it can withstand subfreezing temperatures; and - The mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata). It has an enormous number of cultivars, most notably the satsuma (Citrus unshiu), the tangerine (Citrus tangerina) and the clementine (Citrus clementina). In some cultivars, the mandarin is very similar to the sweet orange, making it difficult to distinguish between the two. The mandarin, however, is generally smaller and oblate, easier to peel, and less acidic.
3- Growing Oranges on the World
3.1- History Oranges (Origin from Sweet Orange) where first grown in Southeast Asia, northeastern India and southern China and were first cultivated in China around 2500 BC. In the first century AD, Romans brought young orange trees all the way from India to Rome. North Africa began growing oranges in the 1st century AD. Christopher Columbus brought orange seeds in 1493 across the Atlantic Ocean to Spain’s Canary Islands to Haiti, where he planted orange orchards. By 1518 oranges were introduced to Panama and Mexico, and a little later Brazil started growing orange trees. America’s first orange trees were planted in Florida in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon. As oranges are rich in vitamin C and do not spoil easily, during the Age of Discovery, Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch sailors planted citrus trees along trade routes to prevent scurvy.
3.2- Growing Orange on the World Oranges are widely grown in subtropical and tropical climates. The orange, as we know today, is probably a hybrid of a pomelo and mandarin, and it is a type of berry. It is mostly is peeled and eaten to avoid the bitter rind; it can also be juiced. Dry and fresh orange rinds do find their place in certain dishes. There are many species of oranges, namely, mandarin, bitter, trifoliate, and bergamot, all which fall under the citrus genus. Further, there are numerous varieties of oranges unique to the place that they are grown such as Valencia, Hamlin, Mosambi, midsweet, Nagpur, sathgudi, and tomango, among others. As of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit. The fruit of the orange tree can be eaten fresh, or processed for its juice or fragrant peel. There are hundreds of cultivars of sweet oranges have been developed, which are grouped into 4 major categories by geography (Mediterranean oranges, Spanish oranges) and characteristics (blood oranges, navel oranges). The total global commercial production of oranges in 2010 was 69.4 million metric tons (mt), harvested from 4.1 million hectares. Brazil, which is the leading producer (with 19.1 million mt), produced more than twice as much as the second-ranked U.S. (with 7.5 million mt). Other leading producers included India, China, Mexico, and Spain. Brazil is the world's leading orange producer, with an output almost as high as that of the next three countries combined (the United States, India, and China). Orange groves are located mainly in the state of São Paulo, in the southeastern region of Brazil, and account for approximately 80% of the national production. As almost 99% of the fruit is processed for export, 53% of total global frozen concentrated orange juice production comes from this area and the western part of the state of Minas Gerais. In Brazil, the four predominant orange varieties used for obtaining juice are Hamlin, Pera Rio, Natal, and Valencia. The United States is the second largest producer. Groves are located especially in Florida, California, Texas, and Arizona. The majority of California's crop is sold as fresh fruit, whereas Florida's oranges are destined to juice products. Mid-south Florida produces about half as many oranges as Brazil, but the bulk of its orange juice is not exported. The Indian River area of Florida is known for the high quality of its juice, which often is sold fresh in the US and frequently blended with juice produced in other regions because Indian River trees yield very sweet oranges, but in relatively small quantities. Production of orange juice between the São Paulo and mid-south Florida areas makes up roughly 85% of the world market. Brazil exports 99% of its production, while 90% of Florida's production is consumed in the US. Orange juice is traded internationally in the form of frozen, concentrated orange juice to reduce the volume used so that storage and transportation costs are lower. The European Union is the third largest producer of oranges worldwide. Other countries with a significant production of oranges are South Africa, Morocco, and Argentina. Top ten countries with the largest production of orange in 2012 (million tonnes):
4.1- Culinary Uses Oranges, which are high in vitamins A and C and potassium, are eaten fresh or processed into juice, which can be consumed directly or further processed into concentrate, both used in numerous soda and cocktail drinks, punches, orangeades, and liqueurs (although many orange liqueurs are made from sour, rather than sweet, oranges, or from a combination). Orange fruits and peels are used in numerous desserts, jams and marmalades, candied peels, as well as cookies, cakes, and candies. Oil derived from orange peels, as well as flowers, leaves, and twigs is used as an essential oil in perfumes; orange seed oil may also be used in cooking or as a component in plastics. Orange blossoms produce more nectar than any other source in the U.S., and are important for honey production (more than 25% of honey produced in California is from orange groves). Products made from oranges - Orange juice is obtained by squeezing the fruit on a special tool (a juicer or squeezer) and collecting the juice in a tray underneath. This can be made at home or, on a much larger scale, industrially. Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world, followed by the US, where it is one of the commodities traded on the New York Board of Trade. - Frozen orange juice concentrate is made from freshly squeezed and filtered orange juice. - Sweet orange oil is a by-product of the juice industry produced by pressing the peel. It is used for flavoring food and drinks and also in the perfume industry and aromatherapy for its fragrance. Sweet orange oil consists of approximately 90% D-limonene, a solvent used in various household chemicals, such as wood conditioners for furniture and-along with other citrus oils-detergents and hand cleansers. It is an efficient cleaning agent with a pleasant smell, promoted for being environmentally friendly and therefore, preferable to petrochemicals. D-limonene is, however, classified from slightly toxic to humans, to very toxic to marine life in different countries. Although once thought to cause renal cancer in rats, limonene is now considered a natural chemopreventive agent in humans, since there is no evidence for its carcinogenicity or genotoxicity. The Carcinogenic Potency Project estimates that D-limonene causes human cancer on a level roughly equivalent to that caused by exposure to caffeic acid via dietary coffee intake, whereas the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies it under Class 3, which means it is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. - Orange blossoms are used in several different ways, as are fruit peels and the leaves and wood of the tree. The orange blossom, which is the state flower of Florida, is highly fragrant and traditionally associated with good fortune. It has long been popular in bridal bouquets and head wreaths. Orange blossom essence is an important component in the making of perfume. Orange blossom petals can also be made into a delicately citrus-scented version of rosewater, known as "orange blossom water" or "orange flower water". It is a common ingredient in French and Middle Eastern cuisines, especially in desserts and baked goods. In some Middle Eastern countries, drops of orange flower water are added to disguise the unpleasant taste of hard water drawn from wells or stored in qullahs (traditional Egyptian water pitchers made of porous clay). In the United States, orange flower water is used to make orange blossom sconesand marshmallows. In Spain, fallen blossoms are dried and used to make tea. - Orange blossom honey (or citrus honey) is obtained by putting beehives in the citrus groves while trees bloom. By this method, bees also pollinate seeded citrus varieties. This type of honey has an orangey taste and is highly prized. - Marmalade usually is made with Seville oranges. All parts of the fruit are used: the pith and pips (separated and placed in a muslin bag) are boiled in a mixture of juice, slivered peel, sliced-up flesh, sugar, and water to extract their pectin, which helps the conserve to set. 4.2- Medicinal Uses Orange uses are not confined to cooking and eating! There are many medicinal and emotional uses of orange as well! Orange uses were first discovered by the Chinese centuries ago and since have remained as a vital part of Chinese medicine. They used orange to relieve spasm and stimulate digestion, and bring good luck! In Europe orange became famous for assisting with colic, asthma, nervous disorders and heart problems. Oranges were historically used for their high content of vitamin C, which prevents scurvy. Scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency, and can be prevented by having 10 milligrams of vitamin C a day. Today, we still use orange as the Ancient Chinese did, and we use the essential oil to combat tumors, stop blood from clotting and relieve depression. 4.3- Other Uses of Orange tree parts Orange peel is used by gardeners as a slug repellent. Orange leaves can be boiled to make tea. Orangewood sticks are used as cuticle pushers in manicures and pedicures, and as spudgers for manipulating slender electronic wires. Orangewood is used in the same way as mesquite, oak, and hickory for seasoning grilled meat.
5- Health Benefits of Orange Fruits
The health benefits of eating oranges have been known for centuries. The benefits of oranges are not just restricted to the high content of vitamin C in them; oranges are also a good source of beta carotene, a potent antioxidant that prevents free radicle damage, magnesium for blood pressure, potassium for cardio-vascular health, and thiamin for converting food to energy. It is also rich in dietary fiber and contains in folates, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin, vitamins A, E and K, and phytonutrients. Here is a breakdown of some of benefits of oranges: 1. Helps Prevent Cancer Oranges are rich in citrus limonoids, proven to help fight a number of varieties of cancer including that of the skin, lung, breast, stomach and colon. 2. Prevents Kidney Diseases Drinking orange juice regularly prevents kidney diseases and reduces the risk of kidney stones. Note: drink juice in moderate amounts. The high sugar content of fruit juices can cause tooth decay and the high acid content can wear away enamel if consumed in excess. 3. Reduces Risk of Liver Cancer According to two studies in Japan eating mandarin oranges reduces liver cancer. This may be due in part to vitamin A compounds known as carotenoids. 4. Lowers Cholesterol Since they’re full of soluble fiber, oranges are helpful in lowering cholesterol. 5. Boosts Heart Health Oranges are full of potassium, an electrolyte mineral is responsible for helping the heart function well. When potassium levels get too low, you may develop an abnormal heart rhythm, known as an arrhythmia. 6.Lowers Risk of Disease Oranges are full of vitamin C which protects cells by neutralizing free radicals. Free radicals cause chronic diseases, like cancer and heart disease. 7.Fights Against Viral Infections Studies show that the abundance of polyphenols in oranges protects against viral infections. 8.Relieves Constipation Oranges are full of dietary fiber which stimulates digestive juices and relieves constipation. 9.Helps Create Good Vision Oranges are rich in carotenoid compounds which are converted to vitamin A and help prevent macular degeneration. 10.Regulates High Blood Pressure The flavonoid hesperidin found in oranges helps regulate high blood pressure and the magnesium in oranges helps maintain blood pressure. 11.Protects Skin Oranges are full of beta-carotene is a powerful antioxidant protecting the cells from being damage which also protects the skin from free radicals and prevents the signs of aging. 12.Oranges Alkalize the Body Although oranges are acidic before you digest them, they contain many alkaline minerals that help to balance out the body after they are digested. In this respect, they are similar to lemons which are one of the most alkaline foods available. 13. Provides Smart Carbs Oranges like all fruits have simple sugars in them, but the orange has a glycemic index of 40. Anything under 55 is considered low. This means as long as you don’t eat a lot of oranges at one time, they won’t spike your blood sugar and cause problems with insulin or weight gain. Source: 13 Health Benefits of Oranges
6- Species and Cultivars of Citrus Fruits Called Cam (Oranges) in Vietnam
2.1- Vietnamese Sweet Orange (Cam mat) - Scientific name: Citrus ×sinensis (probably C. maxima × C. reticulata) - English name: Sweet orange - Vietnamese name: Cam mat (Cam mật). See more information here => Vietnamese Sweet Orange (Cam mat) http://edibleplantsinvietnam.weebly.com/vietnamese-sweet-orange-cam-mat.html
2.4- Vietnamese Blood Orange (Cam do) - Scientific name: a variety of orange (Citrus × sinensis) - English names: Blood orange, Cara Cara Navels - Vietnamese names: Cam do (Cam đỏ) See more information here => Vietnamese Blood Orange (Cam do) http://edibleplantsinvietnam.weebly.com/vietnamese-blood-orange-cam-do.html