VIETNAMESE CEREAL GRAINS Hạt lương thực ở Việt Nam
Edited by Ho Dinh Hai Long An - Vietnam Updated: 05/06/2014
1- Introduction to Cereal Grains
1.1- Definition + Grain Grainsare small, hard, dryseeds, with or without attached hulls orfruitlayers, harvested for human or animal consumption.Agronomists also call the plants producing such seeds "grain crops". The two main types of commercial grain crops arecerealssuch as wheatandrye, andlegumessuch asbeansand soybeans. After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than otherstaple foodssuch as starchy fruits like plantainsandbreadfruitandtuberslikesweet potatoes andcassava. This durability has made grains well suited toindustrial agriculture, since they can be mechanicallyharvested, transported by rail or ship, stored for long periods insilos, andmilledforflourorpressedforoil. Thus, major globalcommodity marketsexist forcanola,maize, rice,soybeans,wheat, and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops. + Cereal A cereal is a grass, a member of the monocot family Poaceae, cultivated for the edible components of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are therefore staple crops. In their natural form (as in whole grain), they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, oils, and protein. When refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrate. In some developing nations, grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet, or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. The word cerealderives from Ceres, the name of the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. In botany, grains and cereals are synonymous with caryopses, the fruits of the grass family. In agronomy and commerce, seeds or fruits from other plant families are called grains if they resemble caryopses. For example, amaranth is sold as "grain amaranth", and amaranth products may be described as "whole grains". The pre-Hispanic civilizations of the Andes had grain-based food systems but, at the higher elevations, none of the grains was a cereal. All three grains native to the Andes are broad-leafed plants rather than grasses such as corn, rice, and wheat.
Many cultivars of Maize
2- Types of Cereal Grains on the World
Grains, commonly referred to as ‘cereals’ or ‘cereal grains’, are the edible seeds of specific grasses belonging to the Poaceae (also known as Gramineae) family. Wheat, oats and rice are the grains most commonly eaten in Australia, with others such as rye, barley, corn, triticale, millet and sorghum making a smaller contribution. Some types of wheat such as spelt, freekeh, emmer and eikorn are also becoming more popular.
2.1- True Cereal Grains There are a number of different types of grains found within the true cereal grains which are from the botanical family ‘Poaceae’ including wheat, oats, rice, corn (maize), barley, sorghum, rye, and millet. Within these groups there are also varieties such as farro, freekeh, emmer and spelt which are all types of wheat as well as new grains like triticale which is a mixture of wheat and rye. All cereal crops are members of the grass family. Cereal grains contain a substantial amount of starch, a carbohydrate that provides dietary energy. List of the True Cereal Grains on the World 1- Maize (corn) Worldwide production in 2013 (millions (106) of metric tons: 1016 A staple food of people in the Americas, Africa, and of livestock worldwide; often called corn in North America, Australia, and New Zealand. A large portion of maize crops are grown for purposes other than human consumption. It can also be used for indirect human consumption through the production of the Mexican truffle. 2- Rice Worldwide production in 2013 (millions (106) of metric tons: 745 The primary cereal of tropical and some temperate regions. Staple food in most of Brazil(both maize and manioc/cassava were once more important and its presence is still stronger in some areas), other parts of Latin America and some other Portuguese-descended cultures, parts of Africa (even more before the Columbian exchange), most of South Asia and the Far East. Largely overridden by breadfruit (a dicot tree) during the South Pacific's part of theAustronesian expansion. 3- Wheat Worldwide production in 2013 (millions (106) of metric tons: 713 The primary cereal of temperate regions. It has a worldwide consumption but it is a staple food of North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, most of the Southern Cone and much of the Greater Middle East. Wheat gluten-based meat substitutes are important in the Far East (albeit less than tofu) and said to resemble meat texture more than others. 4- Barley Worldwide production in 2013 (millions (106) of metric tons: 144 Grown for malting and livestock on land too poor or too cold for wheat. 5- Sorghum Worldwide production in 2013 (millions (106) of metric tons: 61 Important staple food in Asia and Africa and popular worldwide for livestock. 6- Millet Worldwide production in 2013 (millions (106) of metric tons: 30 A group of similar but distinct cereals that form an important staple food in Asia and Africa. 7- Oats Worldwide production in 2013 (millions (106) of metric tons: 23 Formerly the staple food of Scotland and popular worldwide as a winter breakfast food and livestock feed. Processed oatmeal in Latin America is often consumed as breakfast/tea/desserts year-round added to bananas (often soaked in previously smashed raw ones) in more gluten-avoiding (like cheese buns) and/or exercise-intensive diets. 8-Rye Worldwide production in 2013 (millions (106) of metric tons: 16 Important in cold climates. 9- Triticale Worldwide production in 2013 (millions (106) of metric tons: 14.5 Hybrid of wheat and rye, grown similarly to rye. 10- Others Other grains that are important in some places, but that have little production globally (and are not included in FAO statistics), include: - Durum, the only tetraploid species of wheat currently cultivated, used to make semolina. - Einkorn, a wheat species with a single grain. - Emmer, one of the first crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. - Kamut, an ancient relative of durum with an unknown history. - Spelt, a close relative of common wheat. - Teff, an ancient grain that is a staple in Ethiopia. It is high in fiber and protein. Its flour is often used to make injera. It can also be eaten as a warm breakfast cereal similar to farinawith a chocolate or nutty flavor. Its flour and whole grain products can usually be found in natural foods stores. - Wild rice, grown in small amounts in North America.