1.1.3- Subfamily Bromelioideae + Overview Bromelioideaeis a subfamily of the bromeliads (Bromeliaceae). This subfamily is the most diverse, represented by the greatest number of genera with 32, but the least number of species with 861. Most of the plants in this group are epiphytes, though some have evolved in, or will adapt to, terrestrial conditions. This subfamily features the most plant types which are commonly cultivated by people, including the pineapple. + Genera The Subfamily Bromelioideae have 32 genera:
1.1.5- Species Ananas comosus(Linnaeus) Merrill - Pineapple + Overview Ananas comosus(Linnaeus) Merrill- Pineapple- Brazil and Paraguay; naturalized in parts of Asia, Africa, Australia, Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, northern South America, and various islands in the Pacific. The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, and the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family. Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit, possibly flowering in 20-24 months and fruiting in the following six months. Pineapple does not ripen significantly post-harvest. Pineapples can be consumed fresh, cooked, juiced, and preserved, and are found in a wide array of cuisines. In addition to consumption, the pineapple leaves are used to produce the textile fiber piña in the Philippines, commonly used as the material for the men's Barong Tagalog and women's Baro't saya formal wear in the country. The fiber is also used as a component for wallpaper and other furnishings. + Etymology The word "pineapple" in English was first recorded in 1398, when it was originally used to describe the reproductive organs of conifer trees (now termed pine cones). The term "pine cone" for the reproductive organ of conifer trees was first recorded in 1694. When European explorers discovered this tropical fruit in the Americas, they called them "pineapples" (first so referenced in 1664 due to resemblance to what is now known as the pine cone). The pineapple is named for its resemblance to the pine cone. But native West Indians Tupian called it na-na, from which its botanical name (Ananas) comes. In the scientific binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the original name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi word nanas, meaning "excellent fruit", as recorded by André Thevet in 1555, and comosus, "tufted", refers to the stem of the fruit. Other members of the Ananasgenus are often called "pine", as well, in other languages. + Common names Scientific name: Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. English:Pineapple. Danish (Dansk):Almindelig Ananas. Dutch (Nederlands):Ananas. French (Français):Ananas, Pomme de Pin. German (Deutsch):Ananas. Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia):Ananas, Nanas, Nenas. Italian (Italiano):Ananas, Ananasso. Malay (Bahasa Melayu ):Nenas, Nanas. Polish ( Polski):Ananas Jadalny. Portuguese (Português):Gravatá, Abacaxi, Ananás, Ananás-selvagem, Abacaxi-do-mato. Spanish (Español):Ananás, Piña, Ananá, Piña Azucarada, Piña de Agua, Piña de América, Piña tropical, Piña Blanca (Colombia). Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt):Khóm, Thơm, Dứa. + Origin and Distribution - Origin: It is a cultigen not known in the wild presumably originated from the area between Southern Brazil and Paraguay, South America. - Distribution: It is a pantropical plant widely grown for its edible fruits that has been cultivated in South America since the fifteenth century and now it is intensively cultivated in several tropical countries, such as Hawaii, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand.