Edited by Ho Dinh Hai Long An - Vietnam Updated: 18/05/2014
1- Introduction to Sweet Orange Trees and Fruits
1.1- Vernaculars and Scientific names +English names: Orange, Sweet orange, Valencia Orange +French names: Oranger, Orange douce, Oranger doux, Sanguine +Vietnamese names: Cam, Cam Mat (Cam Mật), Cam Duong (Cam Đường) + Asean Vernaculars: - Indonesian: Jeruk Manis, Chula, Choreng - Malaysian: Limau Manis, Limau Langgat, Limau Hupa, Limau Wangkang - Philippines: Kahel, Daladan - Thailand: Som Tra, Som Kliang - Cambodian: - - Laos: - +Scientific name: Citrus sinensis +Synomyms: Citrus ×sinensis (probably C. maxima × C. reticulata) +Relative species: - The Common Orange (Vietnamese: Cam Tây): Many Cultivars of the Genus Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. - The Bitter orange (Vietnamese: Cam chua): Citrus aurantium - The Green orange (Vietnamese: Cam sành): Citrus reticulata ×maxima). - The Mandarin orange (Vietnamese: Quít): Citrus reticulata
1.2- Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Angiosperms Division: Eudicots Class: Rosids Order: Sapindales Family: Rutaceae Subfamily: Aurantioideae Tribus:Aurantieae Subtribus:Citrinae Genus: Citrus Species: Citrus sinensis + The Genus Citrus Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. The most recent research indicates an origin in Australia, New Caledonia and New Guinea. Some researchers believe that the origin is in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeast India, Burma (Myanmar) and the Yunnan province of China, and it is in this region that some commercial species such as oranges, mandarins, and lemons originally came. Citrus fruit has been cultivated in an ever-widening area since ancient times; the best-known examples are the oranges, lemons, pummelo, tangelo, grapefruit, and limes. All Citrus trees belong to the single genusCitrus and remain almost entirely interfertile. This means that there is only one superspecies that includes grapefruits, lemons, limes, oranges, and various other types and hybrids. As the interfertility of oranges and other citrus has produced numerous hybrids, bud unions, and cultivars, their taxonomyis fairly controversial, confusing or inconsistent. The fruit of any citrus tree is considered a hesperidium (a kind of modified berry) because it has numerous seeds, is fleshy and soft, derives from a single ovary and is covered by a rind originated by a rugged thickening of the ovary wall. See also: List of citrus fruits From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia + The Species Citrus sinensis The Orange is the fruit of the Citrus species Citrussinensis (L.) Osbeck. in the FamilyRutaceae. The Citrus sinensisis subdivided into four classes with distinct characteristics: common oranges, blood or pigmented oranges, navel oranges, and acidless oranges. The Common Oranges are many Cultivars of the Genus Citrus sinensis with the ripe fruits have orange - color rind. They are called Cam Tay (Cam Tây)-meaning Western Oranges. The Oranges (specifically, the Common Orange) are now grown commercially worldwide in tropical, semi-tropical, and some warm temperate regions, and have become the most widely planted fruit tree in the world. Oranges are the world’s most popular fruit, and are eaten fresh and used for juice. + The Sweet orange varieties (Vietnamese: Cam Mat) Different names have been given to the many varieties of the Citrus genus. Orange applies primarily to the Sweet orange - Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. Like all other citrus fruits, the sweet orange is non-climacteric. Sweet orange (to distinguish it from related species, such as sour orange, C. aurantium, and mandarin orange, C. reticulata), is a small tree in the Rutaceae (citrus family) that originated in southern China, where it has been cultivated for millennia. There are hundereds cultivars of Sweet Oranges are grown on the World. The Sweet Orange is a hybrid, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata), which has been cultivated since ancient times. As of 2012, sweet oranges accounted for approximately 70% of citrus production. In 2010, 68.3 million metric tons of oranges were grown worldwide, production being particularly prevalent in Brazil and the US states of California and Florida. Some Sweet Orange cultivars have been has been cultivated in the North of Vietnam since ancient times. Now there are many Cultivars of Orange or Sweet Orange in Vietnam from the North to the South. See more information here => Vietnamese Sweet Orange (Cam mat)
1.3- Origin and distribution + Origin: The orange (specifically, the sweet orange) is the fruit of the citrus species Citrus × sinensis in the familyRutaceae. The fruit of the Citrus sinensis is considered a sweet orange, where as the fruit of the Citrus aurantium is considered a bitter orange. The orange is unknown in the wild state; is assumed to have originated in southern China, northeastern India, and perhaps southeastern Asia and that they were first cultivated in China around 2500 BC. The sweet orange is a hybrid, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata), which has been cultivated since ancient times. Sweet oranges were already cultivated in China as far back as 2500 BC. + Distribution: Originating near the border of China and Vietnam, orange has
been cultivated almost everywhere in the subtropics and tropics between
latitudes 40° N and 40°S; near the equator they grow at about 2000 m altitude...
considered one of the most important fruits in the world. Arabophone peoples popularized sour citrus and oranges in Europe. In Europe, citrus fruits-among them the bitter orange, introduced to Italy by the crusaders in the 11th century-were grown widely in the south for medicinal purposes, but the sweet orange was unknown until the first 15th century, when Italian and Portuguese merchants brought orange trees into the Mediterranean area. By the middle 15th century, the sweet orange was well known throughout Europe. Shortly afterward, the sweet orange quickly was adopted as an edible fruit. It also was considered a luxury item and wealthy people grew oranges in private conservatories, called orangeries. Spaniards introduced the sweet orange to the American continent in the mid -1500s. Spanish explorers introduced the sweet orange into the American continent. On his second voyage in 1493, Christopher Columbus took seeds of oranges, lemons, and citrons to Haiti and the Caribbean. Subsequent expeditions in the mid-1500s brought sweet oranges to South America and Mexico, and to Florida in 1565, when Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded St Augustine. Spanish missionaries brought orange trees to Arizona between 1707 and 1710, while the Franciscans did the same in San Diego, California, in 1769. An orchard was planted at the San Gabriel Mission around 1804 and a commercial orchard was established in 1841 near present-day Los Angeles. In Louisiana, oranges probably were introduced by French explorers. Around 1872, Florida farmers obtained seeds from New Orleans, so many orange groves were established by grafting the sweet orange on to sour orange rootstocks. Archibald Menzies, the botanist and naturalist on the Vancouver Expedition, collected orange seeds in South Africa, raised the seedlings onboard and gave them to several Hawaiian chiefs in 1792. Eventually, the sweet orange was grown in wide areas of the Hawaiian Islands, but its cultivation stopped after the arrival of the Mediterranean fruit fly in the early 1900s. As oranges are rich in vitamin C and do not spoil easily, during the Age of Discovery, Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch sailors planted citrus trees along trade routes to prevent scurvy. As of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit. The fruit of the orange tree can be eaten fresh, or processed for its juice or fragrant peel. The total global commercial production of oranges in 2010 was 69.4 million metric tons (mt), harvested from 4.1 million hectares. Brazil, which is the leading producer (with 19.1 million mt), produced more than twice as much as the second-ranked U.S. (with 7.5 million mt). Other leading producers included India, China, Mexico, and Spain. There are hundreds of cultivars of sweet oranges have been developed, which are grouped into 4 major categories by geography (Mediterranean oranges, Spanish oranges) and characteristics (blood oranges, navel oranges).
2- Characteristics of Sweet Orange Trees and Fruits
2.1-Description + Trunk: The sweet orange tree is small evergreen, spiny tree, typically growing to 7.5 m (25 ft), but occasionally reaching heights up to 15 m (50 ft), generally with a compact crown. + Leaves: Leaves are leathery and evergreen, and range from elliptical to oblong to oval, 6.5-15 cm long and 2.5-9.5 cm wide, often with narrow wings on the petioles (leaf stems). + Flowers: Bisexual flowers are born singly or as few-flowered racemes, which emerge from leaf axils. The fragrant white flowers, produced singly or in cluster of up to 6, are around 5 cm wide, with 5 petals and 20 to 25 yellow stamens. + Fruits: The fruit, which may be globose to oval, is typically 6.5 to 9.5 cm wide, and ripens to orange or yellow. The fruit skin (rind or peel) contains numerous small oil glands. The flesh or pulp of the fruit is typically juicy and sweet, divided into 10 to 14 segments (usually 10) with juicy pulps and ranges in color from yellow to orange to red in color. + Seeds: Inside each segment of most types of orange there are seeds called "pips" (although there are seedless varieties). Orange trees can be grown from pips, but some types of orange trees can only be grown from "cuttings" (a piece cut off a tree and made to grow roots). Being a sub-tropical plant, orange thrives best in the cool climate of northern Vietnam, especially in the highlands. The cold nights allows the fruit to develop a deep orange color, on the tree at maturity and a pleasant aroma and an ideal combination of sweet and sour.
2.3- The uses of Sweet Oranges + Culinary Uses Oranges, which are high in vitamins A and C and potassium, are eaten fresh or processed into juice, which can be consumed directly or further processed into concentrate, both used in numerous soda and cocktail drinks, punches, orangeades, and liqueurs (although many orange liqueurs are made from sour, rather than sweet, oranges, or from a combination). Orange fruits and peels are used in numerous desserts, jams and marmalades, candied peels, as well as cookies, cakes, and candies. Oil derived from orange peels, as well as flowers, leaves, and twigs is used as an essential oil in perfumes; orange seed oil may also be used in cooking or as a component in plastics. Orange blossoms produce more nectar than any other source in the U.S., and are important for honey production (more than 25% of honey produced in California is from orange groves). Products made from oranges - Orange juice is obtained by squeezing the fruit on a special tool (a juicer or squeezer) and collecting the juice in a tray underneath. This can be made at home or, on a much larger scale, industrially. Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world, followed by the US, where it is one of the commodities traded on the New York Board of Trade. - Frozen orange juice concentrate is made from freshly squeezed and filtered orange juice. - Sweet orange oil is a by-product of the juice industry produced by pressing the peel. It is used for flavoring food and drinks and also in the perfume industry and aromatherapy for its fragrance. Sweet orange oil consists of approximately 90% D-limonene, a solvent used in various household chemicals, such as wood conditioners for furniture and-along with other citrus oils-detergents and hand cleansers. It is an efficient cleaning agent with a pleasant smell, promoted for being environmentally friendly and therefore, preferable to petrochemicals. D-limonene is, however, classified from slightly toxic to humans, to very toxic to marine life in different countries. Although once thought to cause renal cancer in rats, limonene is now considered a natural chemopreventive agent in humans, since there is no evidence for its carcinogenicity or genotoxicity. The Carcinogenic Potency Project estimates that D-limonene causes human cancer on a level roughly equivalent to that caused by exposure to caffeic acid via dietary coffee intake, whereas the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies it under Class 3, which means it is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. - Orange blossoms are used in several different ways, as are fruit peels and the leaves and wood of the tree. The orange blossom, which is the state flower of Florida, is highly fragrant and traditionally associated with good fortune. It has long been popular in bridal bouquets and head wreaths. Orange blossom essence is an important component in the making of perfume. Orange blossom petals can also be made into a delicately citrus-scented version of rosewater, known as "orange blossom water" or "orange flower water". It is a common ingredient in French and Middle Eastern cuisines, especially in desserts and baked goods. In some Middle Eastern countries, drops of orange flower water are added to disguise the unpleasant taste of hard water drawn from wells or stored in qullahs (traditional Egyptian water pitchers made of porous clay). In the United States, orange flower water is used to make orange blossom sconesand marshmallows. In Spain, fallen blossoms are dried and used to make tea. - Orange blossom honey (or citrus honey) is obtained by putting beehives in the citrus groves while trees bloom. By this method, bees also pollinate seeded citrus varieties. This type of honey has an orangey taste and is highly prized. - Marmalade usually is made with Seville oranges. All parts of the fruit are used: the pith and pips (separated and placed in a muslin bag) are boiled in a mixture of juice, slivered peel, sliced-up flesh, sugar, and water to extract their pectin, which helps the conserve to set. + Medicinal Uses Orange uses are not confined to cooking and eating! There are many medicinal and emotional uses of orange as well! Orange uses were first discovered by the Chinese centuries ago and since have remained as a vital part of Chinese medicine. They used orange to relieve spasm and stimulate digestion, and bring good luck! In Europe orange became famous for assisting with colic, asthma, nervous disorders and heart problems. Oranges were historically used for their high content of vitamin C, which prevents scurvy. Scurvy is caused by vitamin C deficiency, and can be prevented by having 10 milligrams of vitamin C a day. Today, we still use orange as the Ancient Chinese did, and we use the essential oil to combat tumors, stop blood from clotting and relieve depression. + Other Uses of Orange tree parts Orange peel is used by gardeners as a slug repellent. Orange leaves can be boiled to make tea. Orangewood sticks are used as cuticle pushers in manicures and pedicures, and as spudgers for manipulating slender electronic wires. Orangewood is used in the same way as mesquite, oak, and hickory for seasoning
2.4- Health benefits of Sweet Oranges The health benefits of eating oranges have been known for centuries. The benefits of oranges are not just restricted to the high content of vitamin C in them; oranges are also a good source of beta carotene, a potent antioxidant that prevents free radicle damage, magnesium for blood pressure, potassium for cardio-vascular health, and thiamin for converting food to energy. It is also rich in dietary fiber and contains in folates, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, riboflavin, vitamins A, E and K, and phytonutrients. Here is a breakdown of some of benefits of oranges: 1.Helps Prevent Cancer Oranges are rich in citrus limonoids, proven to help fight a number of varieties of cancer including that of the skin, lung, breast, stomach and colon. 2.Prevents Kidney Diseases Drinking orange juice regularly prevents kidney diseases and reduces the risk of kidney stones. Note: drink juice in moderate amounts. The high sugar content of fruit juices can cause tooth decay and the high acid content can wear away enamel if consumed in excess. 3.Reduces Risk of Liver Cancer According to two studies in Japan eating mandarin oranges reduces liver cancer. This may be due in part to vitamin A compounds known as carotenoids. 4.Lowers Cholesterol Since they’re full of soluble fiber, oranges are helpful in lowering cholesterol. 5.Boosts Heart Health Oranges are full of potassium, an electrolyte mineral is responsible for helping the heart function well. When potassium levels get too low, you may develop an abnormal heart rhythm, known as an arrhythmia. 6.Lowers Risk of Disease Oranges are full of vitamin C which protects cells by neutralizing free radicals. Free radicals cause chronic diseases, like cancer and heart disease. 7.Fights Against Viral Infections Studies show that the abundance of polyphenols in oranges protects against viral infections. 8.Relieves Constipation Oranges are full of dietary fiber which stimulates digestive juices and relieves constipation. 9.Helps Create Good Vision Oranges are rich in carotenoid compounds which are converted to vitamin A and help prevent macular degeneration. 10.Regulates High Blood Pressure The flavonoid hesperidin found in oranges helps regulate high blood pressure and the magnesium in oranges helps maintain blood pressure. 11.Protects Skin Oranges are full of beta-carotene is a powerful antioxidant protecting the cells from being damage which also protects the skin from free radicals and prevents the signs of aging. 12.Oranges Alkalize the Body Although oranges are acidic before you digest them, they contain many alkaline minerals that help to balance out the body after they are digested. In this respect, they are similar to lemons which are one of the most alkaline foods available. 13. Provides Smart Carbs: Oranges like all fruits have simple sugars in them, but the orange has a glycemic index of 40. Anything under 55 is considered low. This means as long as you don’t eat a lot of oranges at one time, they won’t spike your blood sugar and cause problems with insulin or weight gain. Source: 13 Health Benefits of Oranges
2.5- Growing Sweet Orange on the World + History Oranges (Origin from Sweet Orange) where first grown in southeast Asia, northeastern India and southern China and were first cultivated in China around 2500 BC. In the first century AD, Romans brought young orange trees all the way from India to Rome. North Africa began growing oranges in the 1st century AD. Christopher Columbus brought orange seeds in 1493 across the Atlantic Ocean to Spain’s Canary Islands to Haiti, where he planted orange orchards. By 1518 oranges were introduced to Panama and Mexico, and a little later Brazil started growing orange trees. America’s first orange trees were planted in Florida in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon. As oranges are rich in vitamin C and do not spoil easily, during the Age of Discovery, Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch sailors planted citrus trees along trade routes to prevent scurvy. + Growing Orange on the World Oranges are widely grown in subtropical and tropical climates. The orange, as we know today, is probably a hybrid of a pomelo and mandarin, and it is a type of berry. It is mostly is peeled and eaten to avoid the bitter rind; it can also be juiced. Dry and fresh orange rinds do find their place in certain dishes. There are many species of oranges, namely, mandarin, bitter, trifoliate, and bergamot, all which fall under the citrus genus. Further, there are numerous varieties of oranges unique to the place that they are grown such as Valencia, Hamlin, Mosambi, midsweet, Nagpur, sathgudi, and tomango, among others. As of 1987, orange trees were found to be the most cultivated fruit tree in the world. Orange trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their sweet fruit. The fruit of the orange tree can be eaten fresh, or processed for its juice or fragrant peel. There are hundreds of cultivars of sweet oranges have been developed, which are grouped into 4 major categories by geography (Mediterranean oranges, Spanish oranges) and characteristics (blood oranges, navel oranges). The total global commercial production of oranges in 2010 was 69.4 million metric tons (mt), harvested from 4.1 million hectares. Brazil, which is the leading producer (with 19.1 million mt), produced more than twice as much as the second-ranked U.S. (with 7.5 million mt). Other leading producers included India, China, Mexico, and Spain. Brazil is the world's leading orange producer, with an output almost as high as that of the next three countries combined (the United States, India, and China). Orange groves are located mainly in the state of São Paulo, in the southeastern region of Brazil, and account for approximately 80% of the national production. As almost 99% of the fruit is processed for export, 53% of total global frozen concentrated orange juice production comes from this area and the western part of the state of Minas Gerais. In Brazil, the four predominant orange varieties used for obtaining juice are Hamlin, Pera Rio, Natal, and Valencia. The United States is the second largest producer. Groves are located especially in Florida, California, Texas, and Arizona. The majority of California's crop is sold as fresh fruit, whereas Florida's oranges are destined to juice products. Mid-south Florida produces about half as many oranges as Brazil, but the bulk of its orange juice is not exported. The Indian River area of Florida is known for the high quality of its juice, which often is sold fresh in the US and frequently blended with juice produced in other regions because Indian River trees yield very sweet oranges, but in relatively small quantities. Production of orange juice between the São Paulo and mid-south Florida areas makes up roughly 85% of the world market. Brazil exports 99% of its production, while 90% of Florida's production is consumed in the US. Orange juice is traded internationally in the form of frozen, concentrated orange juice to reduce the volume used so that storage and transportation costs are lower. The European Union is the third largest producer of oranges worldwide. Other countries with a significant production of oranges are South Africa, Morocco, and Argentina. Top ten countries with the largest production of orange in 2012 (million tonnes)
3.1- The term “Cam” in Vietnamese Vietnamese use the term ‘Cam’ for any citrus, which resembles orange. ‘Cam Mat’ is called for sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). ‘Cam Mat’ of Vietnam are major cultivars that are probably various forms of Valencia Orange, one of the world’s most popular cultivars of orange. The term ‘Cam Mat’ is not usually used in front of cultivars of sweet orange, but it is simply called “Cam” before the name of location that the cultivar originated or its original names (with imported cultivars). But some Cultivars of Sweet Orange in the South Vietnam are are called “Cam Mat” before their names such as: Cam Mat Song Tien (Cam Mật Sông Tiền) also called Cam Mat SaiGon (Cam Mật Sài Gòn) and Cam Mat Phong Dien (Cam Mật Phong Điền). Some Cultivars of Sweet Orange in the MeKong Delta that have yellow color skin when
the fruits ripe are called Cam Xoan (Cam Xoàn) such as: Cam Xoan Tien Giang
(Cam Xoàn Tiền Giang), Cam Xoan Tra Vinh (Cam Xoàn Trà Vinh), Cam Xoan Vinh
Long (Cam Xoàn Vĩnh Long) and Cam Xoan Can Tho).
3.2- Cultivars of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) in Vietnam 3.2.1- Local Cultivars Cam Mat (Sweet Oranges) of Vietnam are common cultivars that are probably various forms of Valencia Orange, one of the world’s most popular cultivars of orange. Some Sweet Orange cultivars have been has been cultivated in the North of Vietnam since ancient times. The Local Cultivars of Sweet Oranges in Vietnam can be original from the Old China. Now there are many Cultivars of Orange or Sweet Orange in Vietnam from the North to the South. Local Cultivars of Sweet Orange in Vietnam 1- CamCao Phong – Cao Phong Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Cao Phong Town, Hoa Binh province. - Location of Cultivation: Cao Phong Town, Hoa Binh province. 2-Cam Van Du (Cam Vân Du) - Van Du Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: From Orange Research Farm at Phu Quy area, Thanh Hoa province. - Location of Cultivation: Thanh Hoa, Nghe An and Ha Tinh provinces 3-Cam Song Con (Cam Sông Con) - Song Con Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: At River Sông Con Farm, Phu Quy area, Thanh Hoa province. - Location of Cultivation: Song Con Agricultural Farm, Phu Quy district, Nghe An province. 4- Cam Xa Doai (Cam Xã Đoài) - Xa Doai Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Xa Doai commune, Nghi Loc distrist, Nghe An province. - Location of Cultivation: Xa Doai commune, Nghi Loc distrist, Nghe An province. 5- Cam Vinh – Vinh Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Minh Hop commune, Quy Hop district, Nghe An province. - Location of Cultivation: In the Western area of Nghe An province. Many other provinces such as: Hung Yen, Lao Cai, Tuyen Quang, Ha Giang… 6- Cam MatTienGiang (Cam Mật Tiền Giang) – Tien Giang Sweet Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: An Huu commune, Cai Be district, Tien Giang provunce. - Location of Cultivation: Cau Be district, Tien Giang province. Cai Mon commune, Cho Lach district, Ben Tre province. 7- Cam Mat Phong Dien (Cam Mật Phong Điền) – Phong Dien Sweet Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Phong Dien district, Can Tho City - Location of Cultivation: Phong Dien district, Can Tho City Many districts of Can Tho City and Hau Giang province. 8- Cam Mat Khong Hat (Cam Mật Không Hạt) – Seedless Sweet Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Mr. Nguyen van Loc also called Muoi Nho at Thanh Hoa commune, Cai Lay district, Tien Giang provinece discovered one tree of Seedless Sweet Orange in 1974. - Location of Cultivation: Orange garden of Mr. Nguyen van Loc (Muoi Nho) at Thanh Hoa commune, Cai Lay district, Tien Giang provinece. Nowadays in his garden has about 400 Seedless Sweet Orange trees with special fruits. 9- Cam Xoan Nam Bo (Cam Xoàn Nam Bộ) –Southern Xoan Sweet Orange (Cutivar f
Variety Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Cai Be district, Tien Giang province. In the Me Kong Delta has a Variety of Sweet Orange that have yellow color skin when the fruits ripe are called Cam Xoan (Cam Xoàn) with many Clutivars. - Location of Cultivation: Cai Be, Cai Lay, Chau Thanh districts, Tien Giang province. Cai Mon commune, Cho Lach districts, Ben Tre province. Thien My, Tan My, Thoi Hoa, Vinh Xuan communes, Tra On districts, Vinh Long province. Chau Thanh, Long My districts, Hau Giang province. Many localuties in other provinces of South Vietnam. 10- Other Local Cultivars of Sweet Orange in Vietnam: - Cam Mat Van Giang (Cam Mật Văn Giang) – Van Giang Sweet Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Cam Mat Ha Giang (Cam Mật Hà Giang) – Ha Giang Sweet Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Cam Mat Huong Son (Cam Mật Hương Sơn) – Huong Son Sweet Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Cam Mat Quy Hop (Cam Mật Quỳ Hợp) – Quy Hop Sweet Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis)
3.2.2- Imported Cultivars of Common or Sweet Orange 1- Cam Valencia– Valencia Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Imported from Taiwan. - Location of Cultivation: Research for Growing in Thach Quang commune, Thach Thanh district, Thanh Hoa province. 2- Cam Hamlin – Hamlin Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) Origin: Imported from Taiwan - Location of Cultivation: Research for Growing in Thach Quang commune, Thach Thanh district, Thanh Hoa province. 3- Cam Pine WN-1 – Pine WN-1 Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) Origin: Imported from Taiwan, - Location of Cultivation: Research for Growing in Thach Quang commune, Thach Thanh district, Thanh Hoa province. 4- Cam Navel – Navel Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) Origin: Imported from Taiwan, - Location of Cultivation: Growing in Thach Quang commune, Thach Thanh district, Thanh Hoa province. 5- Cam Do Cara Cara (Cam Đỏ Cara Cara) – Cara Cara Red Orange (Cultivar of Valencia Orange: Citrus sinensis) - Origin: U.S.A, imported from Australia by Phuong Mai Co.Ltd. - Location of Cultivation:(Tel: 0838445396 or Mai
Viet Phuong: 0916507777). Research for growing in Hiep Thanh commune, Duc Trong district, Lam Dong province. (Telephone: 0838445396 or Mai
Viet Phuong: 0916507777).
4- Characteristics of Main Sweet Orange Cultivars in Vietnam
4.1-Local Cultivars of Sweet Orange in Vietnam 1- CamCao Phong - Cao Phong Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Cap Phong Town, Hoa Binh province. - Character: Cao Phong sweet range is the famous cultivar of Sweet Orange in Cao Phong Town, Hoa Binh province. This ripe sweet orange is famous with sweet taste, aroma smell, thin and greenish yellow skin. It ripe season when mid-October. In many years ago, fruits of Cao Phong orange were equally liked the same as other famous local sweet orange fruits of other areas. On the market having many other types of orange fruits are pretended the name " Cao Phong Sweet Orange" to sell with a higher price. - Location of Cultivation: Cao Phong Town, Hoa Binh province.
Cao Phong Sweet Orange
Cao Phong Sweet Orange Fruits
2-Cam Van Du (Cam Vân Du) - Van Du Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: From Orange Research Farm at Phu Quy area, Thanh Hoa province. - Character: This cultivar was named
after a locality where the cultivar was first introduced in the 1940s from the
Sunkist oranges at Van Du Orange Fruit Research Farm (at Phu Quy area, Thanh
Hoa province). It was selected from the Sunkist oranges and was grown in the State farms of Thah Hoa, Nghe An and Ha Tinh provinces from the decade 1970-1980. Mature trees have a dense canopy with oblong leaves. Fruits are either spherical or elliptical, with thick skin, very juicy with lots of seeds and fiber. The tree can adapt to soils with low fertility. The tree are average height, with short spines on the branches, spreading canopy, broad adaptation. High yield, average fruit weight 180-200 g / fruit, with 10-15 seeds / fruit, deliciously fragrant, harvested on October and November. - Location of Cultivation: Thanh Hoa, Nghe An and Ha Tinh provinces
Van Du Orange tree
Van Du Orange fruits
3-Cam Song Con (Cam Sông Con) - Song Con Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: At River Sông Con State Farm, Phu Quy area, Thanh Hoa province. - Character: This cutivar was named after a state farm that was established in the 1960s. It is a local cultivar probably selected from an introduced cultivar. It has vigorous growth and a spherical canopy with dense twigs, with no spines on the branches. Fruits are spherical, 200-250 g, 3-5 seeds/fruit, with good, sweet flavor. - Location of Cultivation: Song Con State Agricultural Farm, Phu Quy district, Nghe An province.
Song Con Orange tree
Song Con Orange Fruits
4- Cam Xa Doai (Cam Xã Đoài) - Xa Doai Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Xa Doai commune, Nghi Loc distrist, Nghe An province. Cam Xa Doai (Cam Xã Đoài) - Xa Doai Orange, is a variety of orange of Spanish origin cultivated in Vietnam at the former Catholic settlement at xã Đoài, modern Nghi Diên village in Nghi Lộc, Nghệ An. Xã Đoài is the name of the village, and the former Grand Séminaire de Xa-Doai, in the old Nôm script. - Character: The trees are average heigh (5 - 6 m) with slightly spreading canopy, wide adaptation. It has sparse shoots with sharp thorns. Growing on the high location get better results. Fruits are spherical or elliptical, 200 to 250 g with good flavour and rather juicy. This cultivar has high yield, fruits with 18-22 seeds / fruit, deliciously fragrant, harvesting in December to the next January. There are many cultivars of this Variety as the source of Sweet Orange in other localities with the name “Xa Doai Orange” but they not have good quality as Sweet Orange fruits growing at Xa Doai area. - Location of Cultivation: Xa Doai commune, Nghi Loc distrist, Nghe An province. Many other areas in Nghe An province and more localities of the Central and the North of Vietnam.
Xa Doai Orange tree
Xa Doai Orange Fruits
5- Cam Vinh – Vinh Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Minh Hop commune, Quy Hop district, Nghe An province. - Character: Cultivar Cam Vinh (Vinh Orange) was cultivated on the Red soil of Western area of Nghe An province. The local weather at here is good for the Orange trees growing and producing the famous orange fruits. Cam Vinh have the round fruits, smaller than others, more water, a few seeds or seedless, with golden green and thin skin, often be burnt by fungi, intestines aromatic sweetness. Cam Vinh is bright yellow color between yellow color of ripe lemon with green, not as orange color. Cam Vinh is the common names of many cultivars of oranges growing in Nghe An province, in which Sweet orange is the main one. Cam Vinh usually becomes ripe in September and harvesting season during to the Lunar New Year. Cam Vinh now are also planting in a few localities such as Hung Yen, Lao Cai, Tuyen Quang, Ha Giang provinces... with the higher yield but the fruits are not good quality as at its original area. Cam Hung Yen (from cultivar of Cam Vinh) although superficially similar but thicker skin than Vinh oranges, sourer and having more than seeds. Due other yellowish orange peel are similar to glance at the orange fruit's skin color, consumers hard to distinguish what is real Vinh Orange fruits with the others. Therefore, very few people actually eat real Vinh oranges, which is usually only eat the oranges from other area or oranges imported from China that are pretended to Vinh Orange!. - Location of Cultivation: In the Western area of Nghe An province. Many other provinces such as: Hung Yen, Lao Cai, Tuyen Quang, Ha Giang…
Vinh Orange Tree
Vinh Orange Fruits
6- Cam MatTien Giang (Cam Mật Tiền Giang) – Tien Giang Sweet Orange (Cutivar of Variety Citrus sinensis) - Origin: An Huu commune, Cai Be district, Tien Giang province. - Character: In Vietnamese ‘Cam Mat’ is called for sweet orange (Species Citrus sinensis). ‘Cam Mat’ of Vietnam are major cultivars that are probably various forms of Valencia Orange, one of the world’s most popular cultivars of orange. The term ‘Cam Mat’ is not used in front of cultivars of sweet orange, but it is simply called “Cam” before the name of location that the cultivar originated or its original names (with imported cultivars). The word “Cam Mat” (Cam Mật) are only used in the case that to distinguish between Sweet Orange (Cam Mat) in the South or Cam Duong (Cam Đường) in the North with other Citrus Fruits called “Cam” in Vietnam such as Cam Sanh (Cam Sành) - Green Orange (Hybrid Species Citrus reticulata x Citrus Sinensis) or with Cam Chua - Sour orange (Citrus aurantium) in the North or others that not like as “Sweet range”. Tien Giang Sweet Orange sometime called Cam Mat Sai Gon because Old Sai Gon City was the where using mainly all most of commercial production of this famous fruits. Cam Mat is a kind of succulent fruit with thin skin and sweet taste. When its fruit become ripe, the skin is green or yellow - green and not have orange color as some similar cultivars in the North of Vietnam. - Location of Cultivation: Cau Be district, Tien Giang province. Cai Mon commune, Cho Lach district, Ben Tre province. Many localities of other provinces in the South Vietnam.
Sweet Orange Tree
Sweet Orange Fruits
7- Cam Mat Phong Dien (Cam Mật Phong Điền) – Phong Dien Sweet Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Phong Dien district, Can Tho City. - Character: Cam Mat Phong Dien (Cam Mật Phong Điền) - Phong Dien Sweet orange is a kind of succulent fruit with thin skin and sweet taste. Cam mat Phong Dien is very popular in the 60th decade of the twentieth century and became specialties of Phong Dien garden. Its quality is equivalent to that of oranges of Cai Mon (Ben Tre), Cai Be, An Huu (Tien Giang). - Location of Cultivation: Phong Dien district, Can Tho City Many districts of Can Tho City and Hau Giang province.
Phong Dien Sweet Orange Tree
Phong Dien Sweet Orange Fruit
8- Cam Mat Khong Hat (Cam Mật Không Hạt) – Seedless Sweet Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Mr. Nguyen van Loc also called Muoi Nho discovered one tree of Sweet Orange in his garden that all of its fruits had not seeds from 1974. He has grown this cultivar of Seedless Sweet Orange by methods of cutting and grafting branch. Nowadays in his garden has about 400 seedless sweet orange trees with special fruits. - Character: Seedless Sweet Orange fruits have bright yellow when ripe, delicious and very easy to peel and have not much free water in their flesh. To distinguish between seedless sweet orange fruit with normal sweet orange fruits: the Seedless Sweet Orange fruit when ripe has yellow fresh, beautiful shells. Seedless Sweet Orange fruit has a coin shade form at the bottom, but in normal Sweet Orange there is no that. With his Seedless Orange Fruits, Mr. Muoi Nho won the second prize at the International Agricultural Fair in Can Tho in 2002 for flavor and imnormal fruits in 2005 of Cho Lach District, Ben Tre Province. In 2006, The Southern Horticultural Research Institute (SOFRI) requested the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development acknowledged some Seedless orange trees in Orange garden of Mr. Muoi Nho as source of parent cultivar of Seedless Sweet Orange in Vietnam. - Location of Cultivation: Orange garden of Mr. Nguyen van Loc (Muoi Nho) at Thanh Hoa commune, Cai Lay district, Tien Giang provinece.
Seedless sweet orange tree
Seedless sweet orange fruit
9- Cam Xoan Nam Bo (Cam Xoàn Nam Bộ) –Southern Xoan Sweet Orange (Cutivar f Variety Citrus sinensis) - Origin: Cai Be district, Tien Giang province. In the Mekong Delta has a Variety of Sweet Orange that has yellow color skin when the fruits ripe is called Cam Xoan (Cam Xoàn) with many Cultivars such as: Cam Xoan Tien Giang (Cam Xoàn Tiền Giang), Cam Xoan Tra On (Cam Xoàn Trà Ôn), Cam Xoan Cai Mon (Cam Xoàn Cái Mơn) and Cam Xoan Hau Giang (Cam Xoàn Hậu Giang). - Character: Cam Xoan is the Sweet Orange Variety that has been planting in many provinces of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam for a long time. Cam Xoan grows and thrives rapidly, adapting to many types of high and drained lands , not be contaminated too acid and salinity soil. Cam Xoan trees tolerate quite well with yellow leaf disease Geenning and some other pests. After 30 months of planting the fruits appear. From flowering to harvest about 8 months. The shape of Cam Xoan fruit is the same with Sweet Orange fruit. Its skin when become ripe turn yellow color (comparing with the Sweet Orange Fruits in the Southern have Green Color when they are ripe). There is a distinctive feature of Cam Xoan fruit: in the bottom of its fruit has a round indented circle with diameter of 1.5 cm. The fruits have average weight about 250-300 grams.Flesh of fruit is yellow color, strong sweetness, aroma, average weight 250 - 300gram. Flesh of Cam Xoan is yellow color, strong sweetness, aroma. The fruit of it is smaller it is sweeter and more scented when compared to the bigger one. - Location of Cultivation: Cai Be, Cai Lay, Chau Thanh districts, Tien Giang province. Cai Mon commune, Cho Lach district, Ben Tre province. Thien My, Tan My, Thoi Hoa, Vinh Xuan communes, Tra On district, Vinh Long province. Chau Thanh, Long My districts, Hau Giang province. Many localuties in other provinces of South Vietnam.
Cam Xoan tree
Cam Xoan fruits become ripe
Ripe fruits of Cam Xoan
4.2- Imported Cultivars of Common or Sweet Orange 1- Cam Valencia – Valencia Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: The Valencia orange is a sweet orange first hybridized by California pioneer agronomist and land developer William Wolfskill, on his farm in Santa Ana in southern California in the United States. Its name capitalizes upon the traditional reputation of Valencia, Spain, known for its sweet orange trees, originally from India. The patented orange hybrid was later sold by William Wolfskill to the Irvine Ranch owners, who would plant nearly half of their lands to its cultivation. The success of this crop in Southern California led to the naming of Valencia, California. Valencia Orange has imported into Vietnam since 1971. Vietnam Imported Valencia Orange from Taiwan. - Character: There are two major varieties of oranges: Navels and Valencias. Primarily grown for processing and orange juice production, Valencia oranges have seeds, varying in number from zero to seven per fruit. However, its excellent taste and internal color make it desirable for the fresh markets, too. The fruit has an average diameter of 2.7 to 3 inches (70 - 76 mm). After bloom, it usually carries two crops on the tree, the old and the new. The commercial harvest season in Florida runs from March to June. Worldwide, Valencia oranges are prized as the only variety of orange in season during summer. Valencia oranges are small to medium sized, and they may have a few seeds. They are usually thin-skinned. Even though the fruit is deliciously sweet and completely ripe, Valencia oranges may occasionally "regreen" in warm weather. When the fruit ripens on the tree, it turns a bright orange color, as usual. But the warm temperatures of the season may make the skin reabsorb chlorophyll as it hangs on the tree, causing a ripe orange to look partly green. Peeling Valencias is easy: trim a thin slice from each end of the fruit, then set orange on one end. Cut away strips of peel from top to bottom, until all peel is removed. - Location of Cultivation: Research for Growing in Thach Quang commune, Thach Thanh district, Thanh Hoa province.
Valencia Orange Tree
Valencia Orange Fruits
2-Cam Hamlin – Hamlin Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: This cultivar was discovered by A. G. Hamlin near Glenwood, Florida, in 1879. The Hamlin orange is one of the most popular juice oranges in Florida and replaces the Parson Brown variety as the principal early-season juice orange. This cultivar is now the leading early orange in Florida and, possibly, in the rest of the world. Vietnam imported Hamlin Orange from Taiwan - Character: The fruit is small, smooth, not highly colored, seedless, and juicy, with a pale yellow colored juice, especially in fruits that come from lemon rootstock. The tree is high-yielding and cold-tolerant and it produces good quality fruit, which is harvested from October to December. It thrives in humid subtropical climates. In cooler, more arid areas, the trees produce edible fruit, but too small for commercial use. Hamlin orange with the fruit larger other local orange, average weight 250 g / fruit. When the fruits ripe, the fruit skin is orange color, the flesh is yellow. There are 0-3 seeds / fruit. Fruit ripe in late September to the Lunar New Year. Trees from groves in hammocks or areas covered with pine forest are budded on sour orange trees, a method that gives a high solids content. On sand, they are grafted on rough lemon rootstock. - Location of Cultivation: Research of Growing in Thach Quang commune, Thach Thanh district, Thanh Hoa province.
Hamlin Orange tree
Hamlin Orange fruits
3- Cam Navel – Navel Orange (Cultivar of Citrus sinensis) - Origin: The original navel orange was the result of the mutation of a common sweet orange growing in an orchard at a monastery in Brazil in 1820. A cutting from that tree was sent to Washington, D.C., in 1870 for propagation. As a result, the original navel orange variety came to be called the Washington navel orange. In the late nineteenth century, Washington navel oranges were distributed around the United States for general cultivation. They were so well suited for the climate of Southern California that they spawned the California citrus industry. The navel orange is the most commonly grown orange in California today. Vietnam imported Nevel Orange from Cuba and Taiwan. - Character: The navel orange is a type of sweet orange that is large, seedless and has a rich, juicy flavor that is delicious for eating out of hand. There are several varieties of navel oranges. They all have thick, rough, bright orange skins that are easy to peel. The segments of the navel orange are easy to separate. The navel orange gets its name from a depression or hole at the blossom end of the fruit opposite the stem that encloses a small undeveloped secondary fruit. The depression looks like a human navel and thus the name. (As the secondary fruit enlarges, the navel enlarges.) The Washington navel orange ripens from fall into winter, and the fruit will keep on the tree for 3 to 4 months. Other navel orange varieties are sports or mutations of the original Washington. When plant mutations result in desirable traits, they are often developed by growers into separate varieties. - Location of Cultivation: ResearchGrowing in Thach Quang commune, Thach Thanh district, Thanh Hoa province.
4- Cam Do Cara Cara (Cam Đỏ Cara Cara) – Cara Cara Red Orange (Cultivar of Valencia Orange: Citrus sinensis) - Origin: The Cara cara navel, or red-fleshed navel orange is an early-to-midseason navel orange believed to have developed as a cross between the Washington navel and the Brazilian Bahia navel. Discovered at the Hacienda de Cara Cara in Valencia, Venezuela in 1976, the parentage is apparently uncertain enough to occasionally warrant the distinction of a mutation, with only the tree on which it was found-the Washington navel-being an accepted progenitor. Cara caras did not enter the U.S consumer produce market until the late 1980s and were carried only by specialty markets for many years there after. Vietnam imported Cara Cara Orange from Australia by Phuong Mai Co. Ltd. - Character: This medium sized navel is sweet and low in acid. The flavor is more complex than most navel varieties and has been described as evoking notes of cherry, rose petal, orange, and blackberry. From the major growing regions, South African Cara caras are ready for market starting in August, Venezuelan fruits arrive in October and Californian fruits make their seasonal debut in late November and are available through April. - Location of Cultivation: Research for Growing in Hiep Thanh commune, Duc Trong district, Lam Dong province. (Tel: 0838445396 or Mai Viet Phuong: 0916507777).