Taxonomy is that branch of biology dealing with the identification and naming of organisms.
Edited by Ho Dinh Hai Long An - Vietnam
1- Introduction to Plant taxonomy
1.1- Explain the term "Taxonomy" - Taxonomyis that branch of biology dealing with the identification and naming of organisms. The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle apparently began the discussion on taxonomy. British naturalist John Ray is credited with revising the concept of naming and describing organisms. During the 1700s, Swedish botanist Carolus Linneus classified all then-known organisms into two large groups: the kingdoms Plantae and Animalia. Robert Whittaker in 1969 proposed five kingdoms: Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protista, and Monera. Other schemes involving an even greater number of kingdoms have lately been proposed, however most biologists employ Whittaker's five kingdoms. Recent studies suggest that three domains be employed: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. - Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants. Thus making it one of the main branches of taxonomy (the science that finds, describes, classifies, and names living things). Plant taxonomy is closely allied to plant systematics, and there is no sharp boundary between the two. In practice, "Plant systematics" involves relationships between plants and their evolution, especially at the higher levels, whereas "plant taxonomy" deals with the actual handling of plant specimens. The precise relationship between taxonomy and systematics, however, has changed along with the goals and methods employed. Plant taxonomy is well known for being turbulent, and traditionally not having any close agreement on circumscription and placement of taxa. See the list of systems of plant taxonomy.
1.2- Identification, classification and description Three goals of plant taxonomy are the identification, classification and description of plants. The distinction between these three goals is important and often overlooked. - Plant identification is the determination of the identity of an unknown plant by comparison with previously collected specimens or with the aid of books or identification manuals. The process of identification connects the specimen with a published name. Once a plant specimen has been identified, its name and properties are known. - Plant classification is the placing of known plants into groups or categories to show some relationship. Scientific classification follows a system of rules that standardizes the results, and groups successive categories into a hierarchy. For example, the family to which the lilies belong is classified as follows: - Kingdom: Plantae - Division: Magnoliophyta - Class: Liliopsida - Order: Liliales - Family: Liliaceae - Genus: ...... - Species: ...... The classification of plants results in an organized system for the naming and cataloging of future specimens, and ideally reflects scientific ideas about inter-relationships between plants. - Plant description is a formal description of a newly discovered species, usually in the form of a scientific paper.