1.2- Scientific name and Vernaculars +Scientific name: Artocarpus integerSpreng. +Synomyms: - Artocarpus champeden (Thunb.) Merr. - Artocarpus polyphemaPers. - Radermachia integraThunb. +English names: Cempedak, Champedak, Chempedak, Small jackfruit. +French names: - +Vietnamese names: Mit To nu (Mít Tố nữ) + Asean Vernaculars: - Burmese: Sonekadat. - Indonesian: Campedak, Cempedak, Nangka Campedak, Cempedak, Nangka - Malaysian: Bankong (wild), Chempedak, Chempedek, Cempedak, Pokok cempedak - Philippines: - - Thailand: Champada. - Cambodian: - - Laos: - + Relative species: - Breadnut(Artocarpus camansi) - Jackfruit(Artocarpus heterophyllus) – Vietnamese: Mit (Mít). - Breadfruit(Artocarpus altilis) – Vietnamese: Sa ke (Sa kê) or Xa ke (Xa kê).
1.3- Origin and distribution + Origin: The Species Cempedak (Artocarpus integer), commonly known ascempedak, is native to southeastAsia, fromIndonesiaand theMalay Peninsulato the island ofNew Guinea. The English name Cepedak is one of some names originated from Indonesian. + Distribution: Cempedak native from southeast asian from Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula to the island of New Guinea. It is especially popular in Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, and Papua New Guinea. It is also grown and eaten in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. Furthermore, the tree has also been introduced to Queensland.
2- Characteristics of Cempedak trees and fruits
2.1- Description Cempedak trees are large, evergreen trees. There are many varieties, although few are named. The vigorously growing tree can bear heavy crops of fruit once or twice a year. The tree can live over 50 years. + The trunk: Cempedak trees are large, evergreen trees. They can grow to a height of 20 meters, although most only reach about 10 -12 meters. The width of the trunk can be 50-60 cm. It smooth bark becomes thick and rough as they age. There are many branches on the trunk, the flowers and fruits can appear both on the branches and on the trunk. Its small branches or twigs are 2.5-4 mm thick, with stipule scars. + The leaves: Twigs, stipules and leaves with brown wiry hairs to 3 mm long. Stipules ovate, up to 9 cm long. The leaves are dull to medium green and have long brown wiry hair on the surface. Leaves ovate to elliptic, 5-25 cm x 2.5-12 cm, base cuneate to rounded, margin entire, apex acuminate; lateral veins 6-10 pairs, curving forward; petiole 1-3 cm long. + The flowers: The trees are monoecious, with male and female flowers growing on the same tree. Inflorescences solitary, axillary, cauliflorous or ramiflorous on short leafy shoots; male heads cylindrical, 3-5.5 cm x 1 cm, whitish-yellow, peduncle 3-6 cm long; female heads with simple filiform styles, exserted to 1.5 mm. + The fruits: The vigorously growing tree can bear heavy crops of fruit once or twice a year. Cempedak is a sausage-shaped fruit, smaller in size when compared to that of a jack fruit. It has a green color and turns slightly yellowish as it ripes. The syncarp may be cylindrical to spherical in shape, and ranges from 10 to 15 cm across and 20 to 35 cm in length. The thin and leathery skin is greenish, yellowish to brownish in color, and patterned with pentagons that are either raised protuberances or flat eye facets. The fleshy, edible arils surround the large, edible seeds in a thick layer. The surface of the Cempedak flesh is very soft, sweet which haves a strong aroma. It is yellowish-white to orange in color, sweet and fragrant, soft, slippery and slimy on the tongue and a bit fibrous. The taste of the fruit is similar to the related jackfruit and breadfruit with a hint of durian. + The seeds: The fruit contains a bright yellow pulp covering the large brown seeds. The seeds are flattened spheres or elongated, about 2-3 cm in length. Cempedak can contain around 50 to 120 seeds depend of its size. The seeds are edible by boiling or roasting. The taste of the seeds is similar to the jackfruit and breadfruit seeds.
Cempedak ripe fruit
2.2- The nutrition of Cempedak ripe fruits: Nutritional value per 100 g of ripe fruit Energy: 117.0 Kcal Water: 66.7 g Protein: 2.5 g Fat: 0.4 g Carbohydates: 25.8 g Fiber: 3.4 g Calcium: 40.0 mg Phosphorus: 5.0 mg Iron (Fe): 1.1 mg Natrium: 1.2 mg Calium: 246.0 mg Carotene: 80 ug Vitamin B1: 0.16 mg Vitamin B2: 0.15 mg Niacin: 0.5 mg Vitamin C: 17.7 mg Source: http://www.malaysiafruit.com/chempedak/.php
2.3- The uses of cempedak on the World + Food uses: There are some parts of cempedak tree are edible such as the young leaves, the bunch of flowers, the young and ripe fruits and the seeds. While the ripe fruits are used as fresh fruit, the young leaves, flowers and young fruits are used as vegetables by boiling or cooking. - Young leaves are said to be used as a vegetable. It can be eaten raw when it covers inside with roasting or cooking meat and sea food. - The bunch of male flowers can be used as vegetable by boiling, cooking and roasting. The female flowers can be used as vegetable if it not to be need for getting the fruit. - The young fruits are processed to have many types of food. It can be cooked in coconut milk and eaten as a curried vegetable or in soup. - The flesh part of ripe fruits which surround the seeds are eaten fresh or cooked. The flesh, typically yellow or orange, sometimes white to pinkish, is soft and mushy with a strong and very characteristic odour. The flavour is sweet, resembling durian and mango, and is considered by some to be superior to that of the jackfruit. In Malaysia 2-3 perianth-balls are pressed together, dipped in a mixture of rice-flour, sugar, milk and water, fried in oil for 10 minutes, and eaten as a delicacy. The flesh is eaten fresh or cooked such as fried cempedak: a tasty Malay snack, or the pulp creamed to be used in making jams and cakes. The flesh is salted to make a pickle calledjerami. In Vietnam the flesh part of cempedak fruit is used in many cooking food, especially with meat. - In Borneo, the skin of the cempedak ripe fruit can be processed into food calledmandaior some call dami.Mandaiis made by peeling the fruit until it looks white, then soaking in brine to preserve and soften the texture. The fruit may be soaked for a few hours or even up to a month.Mandaiis usually consumed by frying until brown. - The hard seeds are roasted or boiled to eat (boiled in salty water for 30 minutes) and have a nutty flavour. + Medical uses Some studies: - Malaysian researchers found that the powder of cempedak seeds have potential as a bread flour substitute. When added a part of cempedak seed powder in bread flour, it makes the food’s glycemic index lower, adds more nutrients, and boosts fiber content. - According to a 2010 review published in the Journal of Ethnopharmacology, compounds in the specie’s leaves, bark, stem and fruit of cempedak have several beneficial bioactive compounds, which show biological activities including antibacterial, antiviral, antitubercular, antifungal, antiplatelet, antiarthritic, and cytotoxic. - A Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science article revealed that cempedak’s cousin, the jackfruit, shows significant anti-cancer potential. - Research conducted at the Bandung Institute of Technology Department of Chemistry isolated a compound in the bark and fruit called artioindonesianidin. This compound may treat malaria and prevent the spread of tumors. - According to a 2013 study published in Phytomedicine, an Artocarpus xanthone showed potent gastroprotective effects against ulcers. + Other uses Young timber can be ground and used as a yellow dye although a darker brown can be derived from older trees. In Indo-China, this yellow dye was used to dye the robes of Buddhist priests. The dark yellow to brown wood is strong and durable and used for building construction, furniture and boats. The bark can also be used for making ropes while the latex is used for making lime.
2.4- The health benefits of Cempedak Cempedak have many benefits for improving human health because of the wide range of nutrients contained in its fruits. Cempedak fruits contain multiple vitamins and minerals. The fruit provides numerous health benefits to body. It is antioxidant, cancer fighting properties and isoflavones. Below is some of benefits of eating cempedak: 1. Cempedak helps in obesity. The fiber contained in cempedak fruit useful to expedite the digestion process in order to run properly, and this fiber is also beneficial to embroider levels of cholesterol in the blood, and aids control blood sugar. It Improves of constipation suffering. 2. Cempedak is low in calories and fat, it is good to eat for those aim to weight lose. It also contains dietary fiber which is high enough to maintain digestive tract health. It is a good option for people who want to do the diet program. 3. Cempedak fruit is used to treating Urinary Tract Infection. 4. High potassium help to lowering blood pressure. 5. Vitamin A in the cempedak fruit useful to keep the eye Health Care. Cempedak haves a rich vitamin A content which mainly helps to keeps the cornea of eye healthier. 6. Vitamin C is good for high antioxidant properties. Vitamin C also decreases the cholesterol content in the blood. 7. The content of compound heteriflavon C on the bark of cempedak from the research have showed that is also useful to eliminate the parasite that causes malaria. It is used to eliminate the cause of malaria parasites to cent percent. 8. Prevent from getting risk of ulcers and those who was indigestion. 9. Decoction of cempedak root can cure fever, skin diseases, asthma and diarrhea. 10. The fruit is anti hypertension and anti cancer. The skin of the cempedak trunk beneficial for preventing diseases such tumors, because there is based on the results of research, cempedak bark contain artoindonesianidin in which the compound is included in flavonoids compounds are useful as an antioxidant for the body, and can prevent various diseases including leukemia tumor cells, and also estimated these compounds are also contained within the roots, and fruit of cempedak. 11. It is a good source for energy. 12. It can prevent from getting nervousness. 13. The fruit is slow down the degeneration of cell and provide a smooth skin. 14. The bark of this fruit in fact contains components that used to prevents tumors and malaria. Source: Health Benefits of Chempedak Fruit http://thebest-healthy-foods.com/cempedak/
2.5- Cultivation of Cempedak on the World + Distribution areas Cempedak native from southeast asian from Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula to the island of New Guinea. It is often found growing in the wild of Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore. It is especially popular in Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma and Papua New Guinea. It is also grown and eaten in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. Furthermore, the tree has also been introduced to Queensland. Cempedak is a wild and also widely cultivated fruit tree of Malaysia and Indonesia. In Malaysia cempedak grew huge especially at state Kedah, Balik Pulau Penang and Perak state. This fruit is seasoning and product between June- August. It is similar to the Jackfruit in appearance and in the way the fruit is used. + Varieties The fruit has many local varieties that come from different parts of Indonesia, eastern Thailand and Malaysia. Most of these local varieties are derivatives from a wild variety of the fruit called bangkong, native to Peninsular Malaysia. This was improved to obtain cultivated varieties by selection and propagation through grafting. Like the jackfruit, it is a syncarp, composed of fleshy arils or segments, 30-45 mm across, colored pale yellow, yellow, orange or green. Each aril surrounds a seed. Texture is firm, somewhat fibrous, sweet and rich. Compared with jackfruit, cempedak is sweeter and has less acidity. + Ecology Cempedak is a common tree in secondary forests and locally abundant in primary lowland rain forest in its area of natural occurrence. It is a long-lived sub-canopy tree. It grows up to 500 -1300 m altitude, often on wet hillsides. It is strictly tropical and always restricted to regions without a distinct dry season. The tree thrives on fertile well-drained soils, but prefers a fairly high water table (0.5-2 m); it can survive periodic flooding, even with acid swamp water (Sumatra: Palembang, Palopo). + Agronomy The cempedak tree is rapid growing, and does not require a lot of care except in the early establishment phase, where microclimate control (shade, irrigation and staking) is recommended. When a few metres tall, however, full sun is recommended, since trees are over shaded will grow too tall not for easy harvest. The smaller version fully-grown tree is 9-12 m tall, and bears most of its fruit on the lower branches and trunk. Cempedaks vary in yield, however very heavy crops are common. Selected cultivars can be grafted onto cempedak or jackfruit, but seedling propagation is usual. Trees fruit in 3-5 years from planting out. + Harvesting If there is an over-supply, the fruit may be picked early and consumed as a vegetable like jackfruit. For ripe consumption, depending on some signals as of softness of fruit or smoothness of skin in some cultivars, change of skin colour, and yellowing of the peduncle (fruit stem) are all guides to maturity. The fruit peduncle will easily break off and the harvest fruits with their long thin peduncles can be ripened at home or stored for later market sale. Cool room storage will extend life. + Problems Young trees have thin stems, and may be damaged by wind. The bark is subject to disease attack, and tree surgery may be required in later years. Insects are not usually a problem because the leaves are protected by wiry hairs, and the immature fruit has latex in it. However fallen or hanging fruits are attractive to wildlife, especially Brush turkeys in Queensland, and perhaps similar megapodial birds or omnivorous mammals elsewhere. Since some fruit are borne close to the ground, ungulates may consume them directly. + The Future Cempedak has great promise as a "new" tropical fruit outside its current area of distribution. It has not better-known as its "big brother," jackfruit. However many people who eat the fruit of cempedak in the first time will immediately be attracted to its flavor. With a backyard or small garden it can provide valuable carbohydrates, protein and vitamins. The fact that it has special components makes it even more appealing. As a fruit crop it can replace a portion of the starch and protein in one’s diet otherwise requiring annual cropland. On the agronomic side, a natural hybrid between two species Jackfruit and Cempedak was found in Queensland, Australia. This apparent natural hybridization "a hindrance to rapid propagation of hybrid cempedak and popularization of its culture," and the scientists in Australia, Malaysia and China suggests for the clonal propagation of hybrid cempedak in the future.
3- Cempedak in Vietnam
3.1- Origin The origin of the species Cempedak in Vietnam is unknown. Just know it was planted long ago in the South, including eastern and western South. The name "Mit To Nu" (Cempedak) in Vietnam derived from folklore. The story told that in an long time ago had a pretty girl that died because of her unsuitable love. Then on her grave grow a plant with more sweet and flavor fruits. The name "Mit To nu" in Vietnamese derived from that. In terms of geographical distribution, Cempedak tree can be introduced from Thailand to Vietnam, because the origin of the fruit varieties from the Malay Peninsula, which has a territory part of Thailand, where now also found the wild type of cempedak trees.
3.2- Distribution of cempedak tree in Vietnam From the South, Cempedak trees spread out all over the country because of this tree is easy to grow from seeds. Cempedak mainly grown in home gardens as a specialty fruit trees and ornamental plants. Currently Cempedak trees in Vietnam are grown for economic purpose in the provinces of the Mekong Delta such as: Tien Giang, Ben Tre, Vinh Long, Can tho..., in the Southeast provinces such as: Binh Duong, Song Be, Dong Nai…, in Western Highland such as Gia Lai, Dac Lac, Lam Dong… Cempedak tree are also grown in Hue, Hanoi and many other provinces and cities.
3.3- Varieties The varieties of Cempedak in Vietnam have not been distinguished. Usually it is divided into two groups depending on their flesh more or less in soft and wet levels: Mit Kho (flesh drier) and Mit Uot or Mit Mat (flesh wetter). Although at some where have traditional cultivars that were grown with their own fruit flavors characteristic. Some famous cultivars of cempedak in Vietnam including: - Cai Mon cempedak in Ben Tre province. - Lai Thieu cempedak in Binh Duong province. - Long Khanh cempedak in Dong Nai province. - Huong Khe cempedak in Ha Tinh province. - Xa Doai cempedak in HaiNoi City - Doan Hung cempedak in Phu Tho province. In 1980 Malaysia was popular 7 bio-types of non-sexual Jackfruit (Mít) varieties and 21 bio-types of non-sexual Cempedak (Mit To nu) varieties, then in Vietnam does not have any of non-sexual variety. Since then, with many roads, the foreign varieties of cempedak have been impoted. For example, Malaysia seedless varieties of cempedak are grown quite a lot in Cai Mon (Ben Tre province), in Nhi Binh, Thanh Loc (Hoc Mon - HCM City) and even in within City the plant also grown well. But the foreign varieties of cempedak can not be controlled genetically.
3.4- Ecology Cempedak tree have preferred warmer so little grown at altitude area and at high latitudes, compared with jackfruit tree. Cempedak tree associated with deep roots and drought well, but if we want to have its high yield output we should only grow it in areas with rainfall of 1,000 mm or more, if not irrigated. Conversely, cempedak trees planted on the flooding and the waterlogged soil, the trees die first. Cempedak tree easy growing on land, despite the bad land, many rocks, as long as drainage can be planted it, but want the tree to have high yield it need to be grown in alluvial soil drainage Cempedak tree has less dangerous pests as in Jackfruit trees.