Edited by Ho Dinh Hai Long An - Vietnam Updated: 05/06/2014
1- Introduction to Vegetables and Fruits
1.1- Definition and Terms of Vegetables In biological terms, "vegetable" designates members of the plant kingdom. The non-biological definition of a vegetable is largely based on culinary and cultural tradition. In culinary terms, a vegetableis an edible plant or its part, intended for cooking or eating raw. Vegetables are most often consumed as salads or cooked in savory or salty dishes, while culinary fruits are usually sweet and used for desserts, but it is not the universal rule. Therefore, the division is somewhat arbitrary, based on cultural views. For example, some people consider mushrooms to be vegetables even though they are not biologically plants, while others consider them a separate food category; some cultures group potatoes with cereal products such as noodles or rice, while most English speakers would consider them vegetables. Some vegetables can be consumed raw, while some, such as cassava, must be cooked to destroy certain natural toxins or microbes in order to be edible. Apart from vegetables, other main types of plant food are fruits, grains and nuts. A number of processed food items available on the market contain vegetable ingredients and can be referred to as "vegetable derived" products. These products may or may not maintain the nutritional integrity of the vegetable used to produce them. 1.2- Definition and Terms of Fruits In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues. Fruits are the means by which these plants disseminate seeds. Many of them that bear edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition, respectively; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour and edible in the raw state, such as apples, oranges, grapes, strawberries, bananas, and lemons. On the other hand, the botanical sense of "fruit" includes many structures that are not commonly called "fruits", such as bean pods, cornkernels, wheat grains, and tomatoes. The section of a fungus that produces spores is also called a fruiting body. 1.3- Botanic fruits and culinary fruits In everyday, grocery-store, culinary language, the words "fruit" and "vegetable" are mutually exclusive; plant products that are called fruit are hardly ever classified as vegetables, and vice-versa. The word "fruit" has a precise botanical meaning (a part that developed from the ovary of a flowering plant), which is considerably different from its culinary meaning, and includes many poisonous fruits. While peaches, plums, and oranges are "fruit" in both senses, many items commonly called "vegetables"- such as eggplants, bell peppers, and tomatoes - are botanically fruits, while the cereals (grains) are both a fruit and a vegetable, as well as some spices like black pepper and chili peppers. Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, wheat or rice, is also a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is very thin, and is fused to the seed coat, so almost all of the edible grain is actually a seed. Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In botany, seeds are ripened ovules; fruits are the ripened ovaries or carpels that contain the seeds and a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed. In the culinary sense of these words, a fruit is usually any sweet-tasting plant product, especially those associated with seeds; a vegetable is any savory or less sweet plant product; and a nut is any hard, oily, and shelled plant product. These culinary vegetables that are botanically fruit include cucurbits (e.g., squash, pumpkin, and cucumber), tomatoes, peas, beans, corn, eggplant, and sweet pepper. In addition, some spices, such as all spice and chilies, are fruits, botanically speaking. In contrast, rhubarb is often referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole (leaf stalk) of the rhubarb plant is edible. Edible gymnosperm seeds are often given fruit names, e.g., pine nuts, ginkgo nuts. 1.4- Vegetable classifications Vegetables are classified according to which part of the plant is eaten. Some vegetables fit into more than one category when several different parts of the plant are edible, e.g. both the roots and leaves of beetroot can be eaten. 1.4.1-Bulbs Usually grow just below the surface of the ground and produce a fleshy, leafy shoot above ground. Bulbs usually consist of layers, or clustered segments. e.g. fennel, garlic, leek, onion, shallot, spring onion 1.4.2- Flowers The edible flowers of certain vegetables. e.g. artichoke (globe), broccoflower, cauliflower, broccoli, choi sum, courgette or other squash flowers, gai lan (Chinese sprouting broccoli) 1.4.3- Fruits Vegetable fruit are fleshy and contain seeds. e.g. bitter melon, capsicum, chilli, choko, courgette, cucumber, eggplant, fuzzy melon, Indian marrow, marrow, plantain, pumpkin and squash, scallopini, tindora, tomatillo, tomato, turia (ribbed gourd) 1.4.4-Fungi When referring to vegetables, fungi are commonly known as mushrooms. e.g. button white, Swiss brown, cup (opened not flat), enoki, oyster, Portabello (brown flat or cup), shiitake, truffle - black and white 1.4.5- Leaves The edible leaves of plants. e.g. bok choy, Brussels sprout, cabbage, lettuce, ong choi, puha, radicchio, silverbeet, sorrel, spinach, tat soi, tung ho, watercress, witloof, wong nga baak (Peking cabbage) 1.4.6- Roots Usually a long or round-shaped taproot. e.g. beetroot, carrot, celeriac, daikon, parsnip, radish, swede, turnip 1.4.7- Seeds (Legumes) apart from sweetcorn, seeds grow in pods which are sometimes eaten along with the seed. e.g. bean (green, French, butter, snake), broad bean, pea, snow pea, sweetcorn 1.4.8- Stems The edible stalks of plants when the stalk is the main part of the vegetable. e.g. asparagus, celery, kohlrabi 1.4.9- Tubers Vegetables which grow underground on the root of a plant. e.g. earth gem, Jerusalem artichoke, kumara, potato, yam. 1.5- Fruits and Fruit Vegetables Generally, “fruit” is the ripened seed-bearing part of a plant when fleshy and edible. In other words, a "fruit" is any fleshy material covering a seed or seeds. Most fruits, from a horticultural (science of cultivating) perspective, are grown on a woody plant, with the exception of strawberries. Or you can say, generally a fruit is the edible part of the plant that contains the seeds. So your eggplant, tomato, cucumber and zucchini are fruits. Fruits in the botanical sense, but used as vegetables: tomatoes, cucumbers, squash, zucchinis, pumpkins, peppers, eggplant,tomatillos, chayote, okra, breadfruit, avocado, pods, seeds such as corn, green beans and snow peas. Fruit Vegetables or Vegetable -like fruits are vegetables formed from the fruits of the plants that bear them.
2- Fruit Vegetables on the World
There are many families of
plants that their fruits are used as vegetables, they include: 2.1- Fruit Vegetables from Family Cucurbitaceae: 2.1.1- Overview + The Order Cucurbitales consists of roughly 2600 species in eight families: 1- Apodanthaceae 2- Anisophylleaceae 3- Begoniaceae (begonia family) 4- Coriariaceae 5- Corynocarpaceae 6- Cucurbitaceae (gourd family) 7- Datiscaceae 8- Tetramelaceae The largest families are Begoniaceae (Begonia family) with 1400 species and Cucurbitaceae (Gourd family) with 960 species. The large families of Cucurbitales include several economically important plants. + TheFamily Cucurbitaceae (Gourd family) are responsible for some food species, such as squash, pumpkin (both from Cucurbita), melons including watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris), and cucumber (Cucumis). This family has 125 genera and 960 species. Most of the plants in this family are annualvines but there are also woody lianas, thorny shrubs, and trees (Dendrosicyos). Many species have large, yellow or white flowers. The stems are hairy and pentangular. Tendrils are present at 90° to the leaf petioles at nodes. Leaves are exstipulate alternate simple palmately lobed or palmately compound. The flowers are unisexual, with male and female flowers on different plants (dioecious) or on the same plant (monoecious). The female flowers have inferior ovaries. The fruit is often a kind of modified berry called a pepo. The Family Cucurbitaceae sometimes called the Gourd family consists of over a hundred genera, the most important genera of which are: - Genus Benincasa : Winter melon or Wax gourd (Benincasa hispida) - Genus Citrullus : Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and others - Genus Cucumis: Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), various melons - Genus Cucurbita : Squash, Pumpkin, Zucchini, some gourds - Genus Lagenaria: mostly non-edible gourds - Genus Luffa: common name also luffa - Genus Momordica : Bitter gourd, bitter melon The Cucurbitaceae family ranks among the highest of plant families for number and percentage of species used as human food. The plants in this family are grown around the tropics and in temperate areas, where those with edible fruits were among the earliest cultivated plants both in the Old and New World.
2.1.2- The major Genera of FamiyCucurbitaceae used as vegetables 1- Genus Benincasa (Vietnamese: Chi Bi dao) This is the smallest Genus of Family Cucurbitaceae. It has only one species Benincasa hispidaThunb. Plants and fruits of this species are called Wax gour or Winter melon and more other names. The common names of fruits of this species are: winter melon or wax gourd, also called white gourd, winter gourd, tallow gourd, Chinese preserving melon, or ash gourd. Vietnamese names are: Bi dao (Bí đao), Bi trang (Bí trắng) or Bi phan (Bí phấn). Winter melon is also a common name for members of the Inodorus cultivar group of the muskmelon (Cucumis melo L), more commonly known as casaba or honeydew melons. Originally cultivated in Southeast Asia, the winter melon is now widely grown in East Asia and South Asia as well.
2- Genus Citrullus (Vietnamese: Chi Dua hau) The Genus Citrullusis a small genus of desertvines, among which Citrullus lanatus (the watermelon) is an important crop. There are two species of Genus Citrullusare known: - Species Egusi (Citrullus lanatus) – Wild melon. - Species Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) – Watermelon. Vietnamese: Da hau (Dưa hấu). Watermelon is a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from southern Africa. On the World there are more than 1200 cultivars of watermelon range in weight from less than one to more than 90 kilograms (200 lb); the flesh can be red, orange, yellow or white.
3- Genus Cucumis (Vietnamese: Chi Dua Bo) Cucumis is a genus of twining, tendril-bearing plants in the Cucurbitaceaefamily which includes the cucumber (Cucumis sativus), true melons, the horned melon (Cucumis metuliferus), and the West Indian gherkin (Cucumis anguria). There are 30 species occur in Africa, and 25 occur in India, Southeast Asia, and Australia. Selected Species (1)- SpeicesCucumis anguria, commonly known as bur cucumber, bur gherkin, cackrey, gooseberry gourd, maroon cucumber, West Indian gherkin and West Indian gourd, is a vine that is indigenous to Africa, but has become naturalized in the New World, and is cultivated in many places. It is similar and related to the common cucumber (C. sativus) and its cultivars are known as gherkins. (2)- Species Cucumis humofructus (Aardvark cucumber), also known as aardvark pumpkin, is a kind of cucumber from southern Africa, tropical Africa, and Madagascar which fruits underground. It is reliant on the aardvark to eat the fruit in order to spread and re-bury the seeds of the plant. (3)- SpeciesCucumis melo (Muskmelon) is a species of melon that has been developed into many cultivated varieties. These include smooth skinned varieties such as honeydew, crenshaw and casaba, and different netted cultivars (cantaloupe, Persian melon and Santa Claus or Christmas melon). Main varieties: + Cucumis melo cantalupensis, with skin that is rough and warty, not netted. Cultivars: - The Europeancantaloupe, with lightly ribbed, pale green skin. - The French Charentais - The Burpee Seeds hybrid Netted Gem. - The Yubari King is a highly prized Japanese cantaloupecultivar. - The Persian melon with a darker green rind and a finer netting. + Cucumis melo inodorus, casabas, honeydew, and Asian melons. Cultivars: - Korean melon, a yellow melon with white lines running across the fruit and white inside. - Canary melon, a large, bright-yellow melon with a pale green to white inner flesh. - Casaba, bright yellow, with a smooth, furrowed skin. - Hami melon, originally from Hami, Xinjian, China. Flesh is sweet and crisp. - Honeydew, with a sweet, juicy, green-colored flesh. Grown in Lanzhou, China. - Kolkhoznitsa melon, with smooth, yellow skin and dense, white flesh. - Piel de Sapo (toad skin) or Santa Claus melon, with a green skin and white flesh. - Sugar melon a smooth, white, round fruit. - Tiger melon, an orange, yellow and black striped melon from Turkey with a soft pulp. - Japanese melons (including the Sprite melon). + Cucumis melo reticulatus, true muskmelons, with netted (reticulated) skin. Cultivars: - North American cantaloupe, with the net-like skin, - Galia (or Ogen), small and very juicy with either faint green or rosy pink flesh. - Sharlyn melons, with taste between honeydew and cantaloupes, netted skin. - Modern crossbred varieties, e.g. Crenshaw (Casaba × Persian), Crane (Japanese × N.A. cantaloupe). - Many other C. melo reticulatus cultivars. (4)- SpeciesCucumis metuliferus (Horned melon or Kiwano) also called African horned cucumber or melon, jelly melon, hedged gourd, melano. Its fruit has horn-like spines, hence the name "horned melon". Horned melon (Cucumis metuliferus), a traditional food plant in Africa with distinctive spikes. Now grown in California, Chile, Australia and New Zealand as well. (5)- SpeciesCucumis myriocarpus (Paddy melon or Prickly paddy melon) is a prostrate or climbing annual herb native to tropical and southern Africa. It has small, round, yellow-green or green-striped fruit with soft spines, small yellow flowers and deeply lobed, light green leaves. The melon occurs in disturbed soil and cleared or bare areas, and thrives on summer moisture. There are records of poisoning occurring in humans. The melon is a weed in Australia and in California, where it may also be known as prickly paddy melon, bitter apple, gooseberry gourd and gooseberry cucumber. (6)- Species Cucumis sativus(Cucumber) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae. It is a creeping vine that bears cylindrical fruits that are used as culinary vegetables. There are three main varieties of cucumber: slicing, pickling, and burpless. Within these varieties, several different cultivars have emerged. The cucumber is originally from Southern Asia, but now grows on most continents. Many different varieties are traded on the global market.
5- Genus Lagenaria (Vietnamese: Chi Bầu) Lagenaria is a genus of gourd-bearing vines from the familyCucurbitaceae, also known as the "Squash" family. It contains at least seven species, one of which is known as the Calabash (Lagenaria siceraria). Its species fruit can either be harvested young and used as a vegetable or harvested mature, dried, and used as a bottle or utensil. SelectedSpecies - SpeciesLagenaria abyssinica Lagenaria abyssinica is a species of squash plant. It is a climbing vine. The stem and branches are covered in hair-like spines. It ranges from Africa to Asia. The fruit is used to make bottles and instruments. It is also grown as an ornamental plant. - Species Lagenaria rufa Lagenaria rufa is a squash plant. It is a climbing vine. Its flowers range from white to yellow. The fruit is a gourd, dark green when developing but becomes cream-orange when ripe. It is native to western Africa. - Species Lagenaria siceraria The calabash, Lagenaria siceraria (synonym Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.), also known as opo squash, bottle gourd or long melon, is a vine grown for its fruit, which can either be harvested young and used as a vegetable, or harvested mature, dried, and used as a bottle, utensil, or pipe. The fresh fruit has a light green smooth skin and a white flesh. Rounder varieties are calledcalabash gourds. They come in a variety of shapes: they can be huge and rounded, small and bottle shaped, or slim and serpentine, more than a metre long. It shares its common name with that of the calabash tree (Crescentia cujete). - Species Lagenaria sphaerica Lagenaria sphaerica is a herbaceous climber in the Cucurbitaceae family. It is commonly known as the Wild Melon. These plants are found in low lying areas from the Eastern Cape of South Africa to east Africa. The may grow along river floodplains or up into the canopy of riparian forests. They may also be found in coastal dune vegetation.
6- Genus Luffa (Vietnamese: Chi Mướp) Luffa is a genus of tropical and subtropical vines classified in the cucumber (Cucurbitaceae) family. In everyday non-technical usage, the luffa, also spelled loofah, usually means the fruit of the two species Luffa aegyptiaca and Luffa acutangula. The fruit of these species is cultivated and eaten as a vegetable. The fruit must be harvested at a young stage of development to be edible. The vegetable is popular in China and Vietnam. When the fruit is fully ripened it is very fibrous. The fully developed fruit is the source of the loofah scrubbing sponge which is used in bathrooms and kitchens. Luffa are not frost-hardy, and require 150 to 200 warm days to mature. Selected Species - Species Luffa acutangula - Angled luffa, ridged luffa, vegetable gourd. Vietnamese name: Muop khia (Mướp khía). Luffa acutangula is commercially grown for its unripe fruits as a vegetable. Mature fruits are used as natural cleaning sponges. Its fruit slightly resembles a cucumber or zucchini with ridges. It ranges from central and eastern Asia to southeastern Asia. It is also grown as a houseplant in places with colder climates. The other names are called anged luffa, Chinese okra, dish cloth gourd, ridged gourd, sponge gourd, vegetable gourd, strainer vine, ribbed loofah, silky gourd, ridged gourd, silk gourd. - Species Luffa aegyptipica (Synonym: Luffa cylindrica) - Smooth luffa Vietnamese name: Muop huong (Mướp hương). The vegetable is popular in China and Vietnam. When the fruit is fully ripened it is very fibrous. The fully developed fruit is the source of the loofah scrubbing sponge which is used in bathrooms and kitchens. Luffa are not frost-hardy, and require 150 to 200 warm days to mature. Luffa aegyptiaca or Luffa cylindrica with the names Luffa, Smooth luffa, Egyptian luffa, Dishrag gourd, Gourd loofa, Vietnamese luffa, Vietnamese gourd, or Chinese okra are a genus of tropical and subtropical vines classified in the cucumber (Cucurbitaceae) family. In Vietnam, the Vietnamese gourd is called "mướp hương" and is a common ingredient in soups and stir-fried dishes. - Species Luffa operculata - Wild luffa, Sponge Cicumber Vietnamese names: Muop xo (Mướp xơ), Muop rung (Mướp rừng). Luffa operculata (common name, Sponge Cucumber, Wild Loofa or Mướp rừng, Mướp xơ in Vietnamese) is a species of Luffa. It is cultivated for its fruit, which when fully ripe is strongly fibrous and is used as a fibrous scrubbing sponge for household cleaning. The fruit is a capsule with spikes. The fruit is dark-brown when mature. It is also grown in gardens and yards as an ornamental plant. In colder places they can be grown indoors as a houseplant.
7- Genus Momordica (Vietnamese: Chi Muop dang) Genus Momordica is a genus of about 60 species of annual or perennial climbers herbaceous or rarely small shrubs belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae, natives of tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia and Australia. Most species produce floral oils and are visited by specialist pollinators in the apid tribe Ctenoplectrini. A molecular phylogeny that includes all species is available (Schaefer and Renner, 2010). There are 42 species are accepted of this Genus. Selected species - Species (Momordica balsammina L.) - Balsam apple Momordica balsamina and the related Momordica charantia share some common names: "African cucumber", "balsam apple", and "balsam pear". Other names for M. balsamina are "balsamina" or "southern balsam pear". Momordica balsamina is a tendril-bearing annualvine native to the tropical regions of Africa, introduced and invasive in Asia, Australia, and Central America. - Species (Momordica charantia L.) - Bitter melon Vietnamese: Muop dang (Mướp đắng), Kho qua (Khổ qua). Species Momordica charantia often called bitter melon, bitter gourd or bitter squash in English, has many other local names. Goya from the indigenous language of Okinawa and karavella from Sanskrit are also used by English-language speakers. Bitter melon originated on the Indian subcontinent, and was introduced into China in the 14th century. It is a tropical and subtropical vine of the family Cucurbitaceae, widely grown in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean for its edible fruit, which is extremely bitter. Its many varieties differ substantially in the shape and bitterness of the fruit. - SpeciesMomordica cochinchinensis - Gac, Red Melon Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. is a Southeast Asianfruit found throughout the region from Southern China to Northeastern Australia, including Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam. It is commonly known as Gac, from the VietnameseGac (gấc) or quả gấc (quả being a classifier for spherical objects such as fruit). It is known as Red Melon, Baby Jackfruit, Spiny Bitter Gourd, Sweet Gourd, or Cochinchin Gourd in English. In Thai it is pronounced fahk khao. It is most commonly prepared as a dish called xôi gấc, in which the aril and seeds of the fruit are cooked in glutinous rice, imparting both their color and flavor. More recently, the fruit has begun to be marketed outside of Asia in the form of juicedietary supplements because of its allegedly high phytonutrient content. - SpeciesMomordica cymbalaria (Hook., Fenzl ex Naud.) Momordica cymbalaria is a vine of the Momordica genus found in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. It is used in the local folk medicine as an abortifacient and for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. It is a relative of the bitter melon plant (M. charantia) which is also used against diabetes. The plant has also been named Luffa tuberosa (Roxb.) or Momordica tuberosa (Roxb.) - SpeciesMomordica dioica - Spiny gourd Momordica dioica, commonly known as spiny gourd and also known as kantola, is a species of flowering plant in the gourd family. It is used as a vegetable in all regions of India and some parts in South Asia. It has commercial importance and is exported and used locally. The fruits are cooked with spices,or fried and sometimes eaten with meat or fish. - SpeciesMomordica enneaphylla SpeciesMomordica enneaphylla is found in Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Gabon. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps. It is threatened by habitat loss. - SpeciesMomordica foetida - Wild cucumber in Affrica Momordica foetida is a perennial climbing vine native of tropical Africa, closely related to the bitter melon (M. charantia) and balsam apple (M. balsamina). Its species name ("bad-smelling") refers to its unpleasant smell. It was previously named M. morkorra (A. Rich) and M. cordata (Cogn.). It is used as wild vegetable and folk medicine in India.
3- The Fruit Vegetables of Vietnam
3.1- Vietnamese Fruits from Family Cucurbitaceae The Cucurbitaceae family ranks among the highest of plant families for number and percentage of species used as human food. The plants in this family are grown around the tropics and in temperate areas, where those with edible fruits were among the earliest cultivated plants both in the Old and New World. Vietnam is one tropical climate country with many Species of numerous Genera of Family Cucurbitaceae growing wildly and are cultivated to use their fruits as vegetables. The main species of Cucurbitaceae Fruits in Vietnam as the following: 3.1.1- Vietnamese Fruits from Genus Benincasa (Vietnamese: Chi Bi dao) (1)- Vietnamese White Gourd ( Bi dao) - Species: Benincasa hispidaThunb. - Common English names: Winter melon, Wax gourd, White gourd, Winter gourd, Tallow gourd, Chinese preserving melon, or Ash gourd. - Vietnamese names: Bi dao (Bí đao), Bi trang (Bí trắng) or Bi phan (Bí phấn). - Cultivars: 1- Bi dao (Bí dao) 2- Bi dao chanh (Bí đao chanh): See more information here:
3.1.2- Vietnamese Fruits from Genus Citrullus (Vietnamese: Chi Dua hau) (1)- Vietnamese Water Melon ( Dua hau) - Species: Citrullus lanatus (or Synonym: Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) - English name: Watermelon. - Vietnamese names: Dua hau (Dưa hấu). - Cultivars: 1- Dua hau qua tron (Dưa hấu quả tròn) - Dua hau qua tron – Ruot do (Dưa hấu quả tròn- Ruột đỏ) - Dua hau qua tron – Ruot vang (Dưa hấu quả tròn- Ruột vàng) 2- Dua hau qua dai (Dưa hấu quả dài) - Dua hau qua dai – Ruot do (Dưa hấu quả dài - Ruột đỏ) - Dua hau qua dai – Ruot vang (Dưa hấu quả dài - Ruột vàng) 3- Dua hau lay hat (Dưa hấu lấy hạt) 4- Dua hau khong hat (Dưa hấu không hạt) See more information here => Vietnamese watermelon (Dua hau)
3.1.3- Fruits from the Genus Cucumis (Vietnamese: Chi Dua) (1)- Species Cucumis melo - True melons, Muskmelon(Dua gang). - English Common names: Melon, True melons, Muskmelon. - Vietnamese names: Dua bo (Dua bở), Dua gang (Dưa gang). - Cultivars: 1- Dua bo (Dưa bở), Dua gang (Dưa gang) - Dua gang dai (Dưa gang dài) - Dua gang tron (Dưa gang tròn) 2- Dưa le (Dua lê) 3- Dua luoi (Dưa lưới) See more information here: (2)- Species Cucumis sativus - Cucumber (Dua leo) - English name: Cucumber. - Vietnamese names: Dua leo (Dưa leo), Dua chuot (Dưa chuột). - Cultivars: - Dua chuot (Dưa chuột). - Dua leo (Dưa leo). See more information here => Vietnamese cucumber (Dua leo)
3.1.4-Genus Cucurbita (Vietnamese: Chi Bi ngo) (1)- SpeciesCucurbita ficifolia - Asian Pumpkin (Bi ro) - English common names: Siam pumpkin, Thai marrow, Thin Vermicelli pumpkin, Asian pumpkin, Fig-leaf gourd, Pie melon (in Australia and New Zealand)… - Vietnamese names: Bi ngo (Bí ngô), Bi ro (Bí rợ), Bi do (Bí đỏ), Bi sap (Bí sáp). Cultivars: - Bi ro qua dep (Bí rợ quả dẹp) - Bi ro qua tròn (Bí rợ quả tròn) - Bi ro qua dai (Bí rợ quả dài) See more information here => Vietnamese pumpkin (Bi ro)
3.1.5- Fruits from Genus Lagenaria (Vietnamese: Chi Bầu) (1)- Species Lagenaria siceraria (synonym Lagenaria vulgaris Ser.) – Bottle gourd (Bau) - English common names: Calabash also known as opo squash, bottle gourd or long melon. Rounder varieties are called calabash gourds. - Vietnamese names: Bau (Bầu). - Cultivars: - Bau Ho lo (Bầu Hồ lô) - bottle gourd - Bau thuon (Bầu thuôn). - Bau tron (Bầu tròn) See more information here =>
3.1.6-Fruits from Genus Luffa (Vietnamese: Chi Mướp) (1)- Species Luffa acutangula - Angled luffa (Muop khia) - English names: Angled luffa, ridged luffa, vegetable gourd. - Vietnamese name: Muop khia (Mướp khía). See more information here => (2)- Species Luffa aegyptipica (Synonym: Luffa cylindrica) - Smooth luffa(Muop huong) - English names: Luffa, Loofah, Smooth luffa, Egyptian luffa, Dishrag gourd, Gourd loofa, Vietnamese luffa, Vietnamese gourd, or Chinese okra. - Vietnamese names: Muop (Mướp), Muop huong (Mướp hương). See more information here => (3)-Species Luffa operculata - Wild luffa, Sponge Cucumber (Muop rung) - English names: Sponge Cucumber, Wild Loofa. - Vietnamese names: Muop xo (Mướp xơ), Muop rung (Mướp rừng). See more infromation hee =>
3.1.7- Fruits from Genus Momordica (Vietnamese: Chi Muop dang) (1) - Species (Momordica charantia L.) - Bitter melon (Kho qua) - English Common names: Bitter melon, Bitter gourd, Bitter squash, Goya… - Vietnamese names: Muop dang (Mướp đắng), Kho qua (Khổ qua). Cultivars: - Kho qua (Khổ qua) - Kho qua rung (Khổ qua rừng). See more information here=> Vietnamese bitter melon (kho qua)
(2) - SpeciesMomordica cochinchinensis - Gac, Red Melon (Gac) - English names: Gac (from the Vietnamese Gac (gấc)), Red Melon, Baby Jackfruit, Spiny Bitter Gourd, Sweet Gourd, Cochinchin Gourd… - Vietnamese name: Gac (Gấc) See more informatin here =>