1.2- Characteristics of Cashew Family(Anacardiaceae) 1.2.1- Description Trees or shrubs each with inconspicuous flowers, highly poisonous, sometimes foul smelling resinous or milky sap. Resin-canals located in the inner fibrous bark of plants fibrovascular system found in the stems, roots and leaves is characteristic of all members of this family; resin-canals located in the pith is a characteristic of many of the cashew family species and several species have them located in the primary cortex or the regular bark. Tannin sacs are also widespread among the family. The wood of Anacardiaceae has the frequent occurrence of simple small holes in the vessels, occasionally in some species side by side with scalariform holes (in Campnosperma, Micronychia and Anaphrenium argenteum). The simple pits are located along the vessel wall and in contact with the parenchyma.(see Vessel element) Leaves are alternate or rarely opposite and without stipule. Flowers grow at the end of a branch or stem or at an angle from where the leaf joins the stem and have bracts. Often with this family bisexual and male flowers on some plants, and bisexual and female flowers on others or flowers having both stamens and pistils (perfect). Calyx with 3 to 7 cleft sepals and the same number of petals, occasionally no petals, overlapping each other in the bud. Stamens twice as many or equal to the number of petals, inserted at the base of the fleshy ring or cup-shaped disk, and inserted below the pistil(s). stamen stalks separate, anthers able to move. Flowers have the ovary free, but the petals and stamen are borne on the calyx. In the stamenate flowers, ovaries are 1-celled. In the pistillate flowers, ovaries are 1-celled or sometimes 4-5-celled. 1-3 styles and 1 ovule in each cavity. Fruits rarely opening at maturity and are most often drupes. Seed coats are very thin or are crust like. Little or no endosperm. Fleshy cotyledons. Solitary seeds with no albumen around the embryo. 1.2.2- Ecology The cashew family is more abundant in warm or tropical regions with only a few species living in the temperate zones. Mostly native to tropical Americas, Africa and India. Pistacias and some species of Rhus can be found in southern Europe, Rhus species can be found in much of North America and Schinus inhabit South America exclusively. 1.2.3- Uses Members of this family produce cashew and pistacia nuts and others produce mango and marula fruits. Some members produce a viscous or adhesive fluid which turns black and is used as a varnish or for tanning and even as a mordant for red dyes. Medicinally the edible nuts from this family have a reputation for being good for the brain.
2- Selected Species from Cashew Family on the World
2.2- Selected Species from Genus Cotinus + About Genus Cotinus (Smoketree) Smoketree or Smoke bush (Cotinus) is a genus of two species of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae, closely related to the sumacs (Rhus). The American Smoketree (Cotinus obovatus, syn. Rhus cotinoides) is native to the southeastern United States, from Tennessee south to Alabama and west to eastern Texas. It is a larger plant, frequently becoming a small tree between 3 to 5 meters (10 to 15 feet) tall, with a trunk from 20 to 35 centimeters (8 to 14 inches) in diameter. The leaves are also larger, 6-13 cm long; it also has varied but very bright fall color, usually brighter than the Eurasian species. The flower heads are usually sparser than in C. coggygria. The smoke trees, particularly C. coggygria, are popular garden shrubs. Several bronze or purple-leaved cultivars of C. coggygria have been selected, with warm pink inflorescences set against purple-black foliage; the most common in commerce are 'Notcutt's Variety' and 'Royal Purple'. When brought into cultivation together, the two species will form hybrids; some garden cultivars are of this parentage. Cultivation is best in dry, infertile soils, which keeps the growth habit more compact and also improves the autumn colour; when planted in fertile soil, they become large, coarse and also tend to be short-lived, succumbing to verticillium wilt disease. Both species can be coppiced in early spring, to produce first-year shoots up to 2 m tall with large handsome leaves, but no "smoke". + Selected species Two species of this Genus are: Cotinus coggygria Cotinus obovatus
2.3- Selected Species of Genus Dracontomelon(Vietnamese: Chi Sấu) + About Genus Dracontomelon Genus Dracontomelon(Vietnamese: Chi Sấu) is a genus of flowering plants in the familyAnacardiaceae. The most commonly eaten species is Dracontomelon duperreanum, which produces an edible fruit that is eaten in Cambodia, Vietnam and China. In Vietnamese, the plant is called cây sấu and is a common urban tree in Hanoi; the fruit is called quả sấu. The fruit is used in Vietnamese cuisine both as a souring agent and a candied treat similar to the Japanese umeboshi. The treat is popular among youths. + The SelectedSpecies Dracontomelon costatum Blume Dracontomelon cuspidatum Blume Dracontomelon dao Merr. & Rolfe (with many synonyms). Dracontomelon duperreanum Pierre (syn. Dracontomelon sinense Stapf ) - Sấu Dracontomelon laoticum Evrard & Tardieu Dracontomelon lenticulatum Wilkinson Dracontomelon macrocarpum Li Dracontomelon multijugum Radlk. (formerly C.DC.) Dracontomelon papuanum Lauterb. Dracontomelon petelotii Tardieu Dracontomelon pilosumSeem. Dracontomelon schmidii Tardieu Dracontomelon vitienseEngl.
2.7- Selected Species of Genus Schinus (Peppertree) + About Genus Schinus (Peppertree) GenusSchinus (Peppertree) is a genus of floweringtrees and tall shrubs in the sumac family, Anacardiaceae. Members of the genus are commonly known as pepper trees. +Selected Species Schinus molle Schinus polygama The Peruvian Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) is the source of the spice known as pink peppercorns but can become serious invasive species outside their natural habitats. Schinus polygama, although less well known, is also potentially weedy in some areas.
3- Vietnamese Fruits from Family Cashew (Anacarddiaceae)
3.1- Vietnamese Fruits from Genus Cashew (Anacardium) + About Genus Cashew (Anacardium) in Vietnam Genus Cashew (Anacardium) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Anacardiaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas. While the cashew plant is native to northeast Brazil, the Portuguese took it to Goa, India, between 1560 and 1565. From there it spread throughout Southeast Asia and eventually Africa. The cashew was introduced into Vietnam in the 19th century. It was originally grown in home gardens as a shade tree. Cashew has been recognized as an industrial crop since about the middle of decade 1980s. Soil and climatic conditions in Quangnam-Danang province and further to the South are considered suitable for cashew production. + Cutivated Spcecies of Genus Cashew in Vietnam 1- SpeciesAnacardium occidentale L. - Cashew Vietnamese names: Dieu (Điều), Dao lon hot (Đào lộn hột) In 1980, the area under cashew occupied only 30,000 ha. It has since gone up to 250,000 ha by 1996. The total production in 1996 was 122,070 tons with an export value of US$122,070 million for cashew kernel. At present, many provinces in the South including Dongnai, Songbe, Tayninh and Binhthuan are having large extents of cashew plantations in production. Vietnam has been the largest cashew exporters since 2009, with 300 exporters to export cashew products to 100 countries and territories throughout the world. In 2013 Vietnam exported 257,000 tons of cashew nuts in 2013, up 15.8 percent year-on-year and earned 1.63 billion U.S. dollars from selling cashew nuts to overseas markets, up 9.7 percent year-on-year. Together with exports of extra products from cashew nuts such as cashew nut shell oil, Vietnam's cashew export revenue in 2013 hit 2 billion U.S. dollars, said a report by Vietnam's Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (Feb. 7/2014). + Wild Spcecies of Genus Cashew in Vietnam There is no species of Wild Cashew in Vietnam. See more information in: Vietnamese cashew (dieu) http://edibleplantsinvietnam.weebly.com/vietnamese-cashew-dieu.html
3.2- Vietnamese Fruits from Genus Mango (Mangifera) + About Genus Mangifera (Mango) in Vietnam Genus Mangifera (Mango) (Vietnamese: Chi Xoài) is a genus of flowering plants in the cashew family (Anacardiaceae). It is native to the southeast Asia region with the highest number of species occur in the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, and Sumatra. It contains approximately 69 species, in which more than 27 species are edible, fleshy fruits, especially the Common Mango (Mangifera indica). The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. Mangifera species are widely cultivated in Asia and elsewhere. Mangoes have been cultivated in Vietnam and other Southeast Asian countries for thousands of years and reached East Asia between the fifth and fourth centuries BC. In Vietnam there are many species of Genus Mango are cultivated and some wild species of this Genus are native to Vietnam. + Cutivated Species of Genus Mango in Vietnam 1- Species Common Mango (Mangifera indica): Xoai (Xoài) is a Vietnamese term for mango. It is customary to use it in front of the hundreds of mango cultivars in Vietnam. The major famous cultivars of Mango in Vietnam are: Cultivars Location of cultivation Xoai Cat Hoa Loc (Xoài Cát Hòa Lộc) Cai Be district, Tien Giang province Xoai Buoi (Xoài Bưởi) Cai Be district, Tien Giang province Xoai Cat Chu (Xoài cát Chu) Cao Lanh district, Dong Thap province Xoai Cat Bo (Xoài cát Bơ) Cao Lanh district, Dong Thap province Xoai Xiem Num (Xoài Xiêm Núm) Vinh Long province Xoai Yen Chau (Xoài Yên Châu) Son La province Xoai Canh Nong (Xoài Canh Nông) Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa province Xoai Giong Moi (Xoài Giống Mới): GL1, GL2 and GL6 In the North Vietnam -