2.3- Pond apple (Annona glabra) English names: Pond apple, Alligator apple, Monkey apple, Swamp apple, Corkwood, Bobwood… Vietnamese name: Binh bat (Bình bát) Pond apple (Annona glabra) is a tropicalfruit tree in the family Annonaceae, in the same genus as the Soursop and Cherimoya. Common names include Pond-apple, Alligator-apple (called so because American Alligators sometimes eat the fruit.), Swamp apple, Corkwood, Bobwood, and Monkey-apple. The tree is native to Florida in the United States, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and West Africa. It is common in the Everglades. It grows in swamps, is tolerant of saltwater, and cannot grow in dry soil. The trees grow to a height of around 10-12 m. They have thin, gray trunks and sometimes grow in clumps. The leaves are ovate to oblong with an acute tip, 8-15 cm long and 4-6 cm broad with a prominent midrib. The upper surface is light to dark green. The fruit is oblong to spherical and apple-sized or larger, 7-15 cm long and up to 9 cm diameter, and falls when it is green or ripening yellow. A fruit contains 100 or more pumpkin-like seeds, about 1 cm. long. Reproduction begins after 2 years. Unlike the other Annona species the pulp of the fruit when ripe is yellow to orange instead of white. The fruit is edible for humans and its taste is reminiscent of ripe Honeydew melon. It can be made into jam and it is a popular ingredient of fresh fruit drinks in the Maldives. The flesh is sweet-scented and agreeable in flavor, but it has never attained general popular use unlike Soursop and other related fruits. Now pond apple trees are wild plants in Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia, the fruits are not important and usually be wasted. It is a very troublesome invasive species in northern Queensland in Australia and Sri Lanka, where it grows in estuaries and chokes mangrove swamps. Experiments in many countries have been made in an attempt to use it as a superior rootstock for Sugar-apple or Soursop. While the grafts initially appear to be effective a high percentage of them typically fail over time. Soursop on Pond-apple rootstock has a dwarfing effect. A recent study suggests that its alcoholic seed extract contains anticancer compounds that could be used pharmaceutically
2.4- Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) English names:Cherimoya, Chirimoyo, Momona, Kelemoio. Scientific name: Annona cherimola Synonyms: Annona pubescens Salisb., Annona tripetala Aiton Cherimoya (Annona cherimola ) originally called Chirimuya by the Inca people who lived where it was growing in the Andes of South America, is an edible fruit-bearing species of the genus Annona from the family Annonaceae. This tree is native to the South America: Ecuador, Peru and Chile. Other English common names include cherimoya, chirimoyo, momona, kelemoio. Annona cherimola is a fairly dense, fast-growing, woody, briefly deciduous but mostly evergreen low branched, spreading tree or shrub 5 metres (16 ft) to 9 metres (30 ft) tall. Large green conical or heart-shaped compound fruit, 10 centimetres (3.9 in) to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long, and diameters of 5 centimetres (2.0 in) to 5 centimetres (2.0 in), with skin that gives the appearance of having overlapping scales or knobby warts. Ripening to brown with a fissured surface from winter into spring; weighing on the average 150 grams (5.3 oz) to 500 grams (18 oz) but extra large specimens may weigh 2.7 kilograms (6.0 lb) or more. The ripened flesh is creamy white and contains numerous hard, inedible, brown or black, beanlike, glossy seeds, 1 centimetre (0.39 in) to 2 centimetres (0.79 in) long and about half as wide. Widely cultivated now, Annona cherimola is believed to originate from the Andes at altitudes of 700 metres (2,300 ft) to 2,400 metres (7,900 ft) although an alternate hypothesis postulates Central America as the origin of Annona cherimola because many of its wild relatives occur in this area. From there it was taken by Europeans to various parts of the tropics. It is now widely cultivated mostly for its sweet fruits that share the name Custard-apple with others in its family. It is cultivated in: - Caribbean: Florida, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico - Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama - Northern South America: Guyana, Venezuela - Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru - Southern South America: Chile, Brazil - Palearctic: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, France, Italy, Spain(Almuñécar, Costa Tropical), Madeira - Afrotropic: Eritrea, Somalia, Tanzania, - Indomalaya: India, Singapore, Thailand Unlike other Annona species A. cherimola has not successfully naturalized in West Africa, and in AustralasiaAnnona glabra is often misidentified as this species.
2.5- Marolo (Annona crassiflora) English names: Marolo, Araticum cortiça, Araticum do cerrado or Bruto Scientific name: Annona crassiflora Annona crassiflora, commonly known as Marolo, Araticum cortiça, Araticum do cerrado or Bruto, is a flowering plant in the Annonaceae family. The flowers of a marolo look like jellyfishes wearing hats, and the fruits are sweet and very rough. It is native to Brazil and Paraguay and the fruit is eaten by native peoples in the Brazilian Cerrado. Although it is considered to have potential for cultivation, it has not been domesticated to date. Its fruits reach over 15 cm in diameter and 2 kg, containing many seeds about 1.5 cm long. When opened, the fruit has a creamy pulp and very strong odor and flavor that differs greatly from custard apple. It is considered a delicacy in the Cerrado region, sold in street markets, consumed fresh or as a Cocktail, cake, in the form of cookies, crackers, popsicles, ice cream, jams and many other sweets. When the fruit is ripe it falls to the ground under the protection of the crown, exuding a strong and distinctive smell. These are the best quality fruits for the consumer, because if harvested directly from the tree, the fruit will not mature, producing an inferior quality flavor. Now it is cultivated in the tropical regions of South America.
2.6- Cawesh (Annona scleroderma ) English names: poshe-te, cawesh, wild red custard apple Scientific name: Annona scleroderma Synonyms: Annona liebmanniana The cawesh, Annona scleroderma (Cawesh or Poshe-te) is a species of tree in the Annonaceae family, with an edible fruit the size of an orange. The cream-colored flesh of the fruit has a creamy banana-pineapple flavor, and a soft texture. The fruit's tough skin makes it particularly easy to handle. The fruit is little known outside its native region. It reaches 15 to 20 meters tall. Its native range is the Atlantic coast of Central America, from Mexico and Guatemala to Honduras. It is not widely cultivated (except in certain parts of Guatemala). A tree grown from seed takes about four years until it produces any fruit.
2.7- Custard Apple or Wild Sweetsop (Annona reticulata) English names: Custard Apple, wild-sweetsop, bull's heart, bullock's-heart, or ox-heart. Scientific name: Annona reticulata Annona reticulata is a small deciduous or semi-evergreen tree in the plant family Annonaceae. It is best known for its fruit, called custard apple, a common name it shares with fruits of several other species in the same genus: A. cherimola and A. squamosa or sometimes it is called wild-sweetsop, bull's heart, bullock's-heart, or ox-heart. The flavor of the fruit is sweet and pleasant, but less popular than that of A. cherimola. It is a small deciduous or semi-evergreentree reaching 8 metres (26 ft) to 10 metres (33 ft) tall with an open, irregular crown. The fruits are variable in shape: heart-shaped, spherical, oblong or irregular. The size ranges from 7 centimetres (2.8 in) to 12 centimetres (4.7 in), depending on the cultivar. When ripe, the fruit is brown or yellowish, with red highlights and a varying degree of reticulation, depending again on the variety. The flesh varies from juicy and very aromatic to hard with a repulsive taste. The flavor is sweet and pleasant, akin to the taste of 'traditional' custard. Possibly a native of the Caribbean and Central America, Annona reticulatais now pantropical and can be found growing between altitudes of 0 metres (0 ft) to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) in areas of Central America that have alternating seasons. It is cultivated in many tropical countries, and also occurs as feral populations in many parts of the world, including Southeast Asia, Taiwan, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Australia, and Africa. Cultivated and naturalizedin many parts of the world including: - Central Mexico: Veracruz - Central America: Belize, Chiapas, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama - Caribbean: Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Jamaica, Cuba - South America: Guyana, Venezuela, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Paraguay - Asia: Southeast Asia, Taiwan, India - Others: Australia, and West Africa.
2.8- Atemoya (Annona cherimola × squamosa) English names: Atemoya, Vietnamese names: Na lai, Mãng cầu ta lai Scientific name: Annona cherimola × squamosa The first cross was made in 1908 by P.J. Wester, a horticulturist at the USDA’s Subtropical Laboratory in Miami. The resulting fruits were of superior quality to the sugar-apple and were given the name "atemoya", a combination of ate, an old Mexican name for sugar-apple, and "moya" from cherimoya. Subsequently, in 1917, Edward Simmons at Miami’s Plant Introduction Station successfully grew hybrids that survived a drop in temperature to 26.5°F, showing atemoya’s hardiness derived from one of its parents, the cherimoya. Atemoya (Annona cherimola × squamosa) was developed by crossing cherimoya (A. cherimola) with sugar-apple (A. squamosa). The atemoya, Annona × atemoya, is a hybrid of two fruits - the sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) and the cherimoya (A. cherimola) - which are both native to the American tropics. This fruit is popular in Taiwan, where it is known as the "pineapple sugar apple", so is sometimes wrongly believed to be a cross between the sugar-apple and the pineapple. An atemoya is normally heart-shaped or rounded, with pale-green, easily bruised, bumpy skin. Near the stem, the skin is bumpy as it is in the sugar-apple, but become smoother like the cherimoya on the bottom. The flesh is not segmented like that of the sugar-apple, bearing more similarity to that of the cherimoya. It is very juicy and smooth, tasting slightly sweet and a little tart, reminiscent of a piña colada. The taste also resembles vanilla from its sugar-apple parent. Many inedible, toxic, black seeds are found throughout the flesh of the atemoya. When ripe, the fruit can be scooped out of the shell and eaten chilled. The atemoya, like other Annona trees, bears protogynous, hermaphroditic flowers, and self-pollination is rare. Therefore, artificial, hand pollination almost always guarantees superior quality fruits. One variety, 'Geffner', produces well without hand pollination. 'Bradley' also produces fair crops without hand pollination, but the fruit has a habit of splitting on the tree. Atemoyas are sometimes misshapen, underdeveloped on one side, as the result of inadequate pollination. An atemoya flower, in its female stage, opens between 2:00 and 4:00 pm; between 3:00 pm and 5:00 pm on the following afternoon, the flower converts to its male stage. In Cuba, this fruit is called anón, and in Venezuelachirimorinon. In Palestine and Lebanon, the fruit is called achta. This is different from the Achta that is used in many Lebanese desserts, including ice cream, which is actually the skimming of fresh milk or cream.
3- Vietnamese Fruits from Family Annonaceae
There are three Species of Genus Annona are cultivated in Vietnam: 3.1- Species Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) English names: Sugar apple, Sugar-apple, Sweetsop. Vietnamese names: - In the North: Na. - In the South: Mang cau ta (Mãng cầu ta), Mang cau dai (Mãng cầu dai). Cultivars: - Na bo (Na bở). - Na dai - Mang cau ta Nam Bo (Mãng cầu ta Nam Bộ). - Na lai See more information here => Vietnamese sweetsop (Na)
Sweetsop ripe fruit
3.2- Species Soursop (Annona muricata) Synonym: Annona macrocarpa Auct. English name: Soursop Vietnamese names: - In the North: Mang cau (Mãng cầu). - In the South: Mang cau xiem (Mãng cầu xiêm), Mang cau gai (Mãng cầu gai). Cultivars: - Mang cau xiem (Mãng cầu xiêm). - Mang cau xiem Thai (Mãng cầu xiêm Thái). See more information here => Vietnamese soursop (Mang cau xiem).
Soursop ripe fruit
3.3- Species Pond apple (Annona glabra) English names: Pond apple, Alligator apple, Monkey apple, Swamp apple, Corkwood, Bobwood… Vietnamese names: - In the North: Ne (Nê). - In the South: Binh bat (Bình bát). See more information here => Vietnamese Pond apple (Binh bat)