Edited and posted by Ho Dinh Hai Long An - Vietnam Updated: 8/8/2014
1- Introduction to Green Orange (Cam Sanh) Trees and Fruits
1.2- Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Angiosperms Division: Eudicots Class: Rosids Order: Sapindales Family: Rutaceae Subfamily: Aurantioideae Tribus:Aurantieae Subtribus:Citrinae Genus: Citrus Species: Citrus reticulata × Citrus maxima + The Genus Citrus Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. The most recent research indicates an origin in Australia, New Caledonia and New Guinea. Some researchers believe that the origin is in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeast India, Burma (Myanmar) and the Yunnan province of China, and it is in this region that some commercial species such as oranges, mandarins, and lemons originally came. Citrus fruit has been cultivated in an ever-widening area since ancient times; the best-known examples are the oranges, lemons, pummelo, tangelo, grapefruit, and limes. All Citrus trees belong to the single genusCitrus and remain almost entirely interfertile. This means that there is only one superspecies that includes grapefruits, lemons, limes, oranges, and various other types and hybrids. As the interfertility of oranges and other citrus has produced numerous hybrids, bud unions, and cultivars, their taxonomy is fairly controversial, confusing or inconsistent. The fruit of any citrus tree is considered a hesperidium (a kind of modified berry) because it has numerous seeds, is fleshy and soft, derives from a single ovary and is covered by a rind originated by a rugged thickening of the ovary wall. See: List of citrus fruits From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia + The Species Citrus reticulata X Citrus maxima (Vietnamese: Cam Sanh) The Green orange (Vietnamese: Cam sành): Citrus reticulata × C.maxima is a cultivar of Citrus fruit similar to an orange, originating in Vietnam. The fruit may be easily recognized by its thick skin, which is typically bright green (because of which, it is sometimes referred to as a green orange), although the skin may also be partly green and partly orange, or entirely orange. Its flesh is orange, dark and sweet. Generally the Citrus fruit is called “orange” in the Western because of it has orange color when the fruit ripe. The Cam Sành in Vietnam is a special hybrid species of Citrus fruits that has green color of skin when it is ripe then it is planted in the South of Vietnam so it is called “green orange”. In bio-classification, Cam Sành is recognized as the natural hybrid of Citrus reticulata × Citrus maxima. In fact this hybrid species can changes color of it skin when the fruit ripe depending on climate areas. When the fruit ripe it has green skin in the South of Vietnam, but in the North of Vietnam it has yellow or orange color. It means that in the cold area the ripe fruits of Cam Sành or Green Orange has never green skin. + Classification as a hybrid The fruit is a natural hybrid of the Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata or Citrus nobilis ?) and the pomelo (Citrus maxima). It is one among many citrus fruits from the region. These include the closely related yellow Cam Canh and reddish to yellow Cam Bo Ha mandarin-pomelos hybrids; the orange-colored chun or sen, yellow bak son, and pink hong orange-mandarin hybrids or "King mandarins" (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis); as well as at least three nonhybridized mandarin (Citrus reticulata) varietals. The term "King mandarin" is sometimes applied to the Cam sanh itself. Note! Some authors mistake between two hybrids of Citrus Species: - The Cam Sanh originated in Vietnam (a hybrid of Citrus reticulata X Citrus maxima), this species introduced to Florida of U.S.A from Sai Gon in 1880 by the United States Minister John A. Bingham that he had went to Japan and he arranged for six cam sành fruits to be shipped from Saigon, Cochinchina to Dr. H. S. Magee, a nurseryman in Riverside, California. In 1882, Magee sent two seedlings and budwood to J. C. Stovin in Winter Park, Florida. - The Tangor formerly identified as Citrus nobilisLour. (a hybid of Citrus reticulata X Citrus sinensis) is believed to have originated in Malaya and to have traveled from there to Japan and then to Florida after Cam Sanh. This variety is a citrusfruit hybrid of the mandarin orange (tangerine, Citrus reticulata) and the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). The name "tangor" is a formation from the "tang" of tangerine and the "or" of "orange". Also called the temple orange, its thick rind is easy to peel and its bright orange pulp is sour-sweet and full-flavoured. Both Cam Sanh and Tangor have the English names: King Orange, King Mandarin or King of Siam.
1.3 Origin and distribution +Origin: The orange is unknown in the wild state; is assumed to have originated in southern China, northeastern India, and perhaps southeastern Asia and that they were first cultivated in China around 2500 BC. The Green Orange (Cam Sanh) originated from Vietnam, it is a hybrid variety, possibly between the Mandarin Orange (Citrus reticulata) and the Pomelo (Citrus maxima), which has been cultivated since ancient times in Vietnam. +Distribution: Originating in Vietnam, Cam Sanh or Green Orange has been cultivated in many areas from the North to the South. In the South, the fruits of this variety have green color skin when the fruits are ripe (so that are called Green Orange), but in the North the skin color of ripe fruit is yellow to orange color. In Vietnam, the Green Orange tree is cultivated in the Mỏ Cày District, Bến Tre Province, as well as in several provinces of the Mekong Delta in the south, including Vĩnh Long, Cần Thơ, and Tiền Giang provinces. In the South Vietnam their fruits have green skin when ripen. In the North, Cam Sanh has also been grown in the Bố Hạ region of Yên Thế District, Bắc Giang Province, but had been eradicated due to the citrus greening disease. Nowadays, cam sành is planted widely in northeastern Vietnam (particularly Hà Giang, Tuyên Quang, and Yên Bái provinces). In the North Vietnam their fruits have yellow skin when ripen. The tree was introduced to the United States in 1880, when the United States Minister John A. Bingham had went to Japan and he arranged for six cam sành fruits to be shipped from Saigon, Cochinchina to Dr. H. S. Magee, a nurseryman in Riverside, California. In 1882, Magee sent two seedlings and budwood to J. C. Stovin in Winter Park, Florida. This tree is referred to as the "King Tangor" or "King Mandarin" in most horticultural literature. Scion for grafting is available through the University of California Citrus Clonal Protection Program. One notable difference is the fact that in temperate climates the fruit will turn a bright orange in response to colder temperatures when the fruits ripen. In U.S.A Cam Sanh has a bright orange color skin when the fruits ripen, not is green as in the South of Vietnam. Although this cultivar originated from the South of Vietnam.
2- Cam Sanh (Green Orange) of Vietnam
2.1- Introduction Thecam sành(Vietnamesefor "greenorange"), the hybrid of Citrus reticulata× C. maxima is acultivarofcitrusfruit similar to anorange, originating inVietnam. The fruit may be easily recognized by its thick skin, which is typically bright green(because of which, it is sometimes referred to as agreen orange), although the skin may also be partly green and partly orange, or entirely orange. Its flesh is orange, dark and sweet. It prefersalluvial soil, and a cool, moist climate, but is widely adaptable,and does well at comparatively high altitudes. Yield is high, with an average fruit weight of 150-250 g. In Vietnam, the tree is cultivated in theMỏ Cày District,Bến Tre Province,as well as the northern mountainous areas.It has also been grown in the Bố Hạ region of Yên Thế (Yên District) ofBắc Giang Province,but had been eradicated due to thecitrus greening disease. The fruit is one among many citrus fruits from the region. Nowadays,cam sànhis planted widely innortheastern Vietnam(particularly Hà Giang,Tuyên Quang, andYên Bái), as well as in several provinces of theMekong Deltain the south, includingVĩnh Long,Cần Thơ, Đồng Tháp, Bến Tre andTiền Giang. These include the closely related yellow cam canh and reddish to yellow cam bo ha mandarin-pomelos hybrids (Citrus reticulata× C. maxima). The term "king mandarin" is sometimes applied to the cam sành itself.
2.2- Cultivars of Cam Sanh (Green Orange) in Vietnam: 1-Cam Sanh Ham Yen (Cam Sành Hàm Yên) – Ham Yen Green Orange (Cultivar of C. reticulata x C. maxima) + Origin: Ham Yen district, Tuyên Quang province + Location of Cultivation: Green Oranges are grown in 15 communes and towns in Ham Yen district 1- Cam Sanh Bo Ha (Cam Sành Bố Hạ) – Bo Ha Green Orange (Cultivar of C. reticulata x C. maxima) - Origin: Bo Ha commune, Yen The district, Bac Giang province. - Location of Cultivation: Bo Ha commune, Yen The district, Bac Giang province. 2-Cam Sanh Ha Giang (Cam Sành Hà Giang) – Ha Giang Green Orange (Cultivar of C. reticulata x C. maxima) - Origin: Ha Giang province - Location of Cultivation: Provines of Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang and Yen Bai. 3-Cam Sanh Bac Giang (Cam Sành Bắc Giang) - Bac Giang Green Orange (Cultivar of C. reticulata x C. maxima) - Origin: Bac Giang province - Location of Cultivation: Bac Giang province 4-Cam Sanh Bach Thong (Cam Sành Bạch Thông) – Bach Thong Green Orange (Cultivar of C. reticulata x C. maxima) - Origin: Bach Thong district, Bac Kan province - Location of Cultivation: Bach Thong district, Bac Kan province 5-Canh Sanh Nam Bo (Cam sành Nam Bộ)- Southern Green Orange (Cultivar of C. reticulata x C. maxima) - Origin: No information - Location of Cultivation: Tam Binh commune, Tra On district, Vinh Long province. Cai Be, Chau Thanh and Co Gao districts, Tien Giang province. My Khanh commune, O Mon district, Can Tho City.
3- The main Cultivars of Cam Sanh (Green Orange) in Vietnam
3.1-Cam Sanh Ham Yen (Cam Sành Hàm Yên) – Ham Yen Green Orange + Origin: Ham Yen district, Tuyên Quang province + Location of Cultivation: Green Oranges are grown in 15 communes and towns in Ham Yen district, while 9 communes and towns located within the project area include: Yen Thuan, Yen Phu, Bach Xa, Minh Khuong, Minh Dan, Yen Lam, Tan Thanh, Phu Luu and Tan Yen town. + Area and production: In the season 2013-2014, Ham Yen district has 4037.9 ha of Cam Sanh, of which 2381.8 ha are harvesting (58.9%), the average yield of over 13 tons/ha, production reached 31,075 tons of fruits; total income of over 310 billion VNĐ. Cam Sanh Ham Yen was sold in markets in Hanoi and the northern provinces about 13,000 tons, in Central Provinces about 10,000 tons , in Ho Chi Minh City and the southern provinces about 8,000 tons. In 2013, Cam Sanh Ham Yen was among the top 10 brands of well-known Vietnam Fruit and it was honored by the Vietnam Farmers' Association on May 2014 as one of the good standard of agricultural production.