1.3- Origin and distribution + Origin: Pond apple (Annona glabra) is native to southern Florida in the United States (including the Everglades), the Caribbean, Mexico, Central and South America, West Africa, and South Asia (Sri Lanka); it is an aggressive invader in the Pacific region. Fruits disperse by floating on water. A. glabra appears to have naturally colonized West Africa from seeds transported on water from tropical America (Csurshes and Edwards 1998, ISSG 2011). It can be the same case of Pond apple that is native to the South Asia !? + Distribution: Pond Apple is a small tree found in wet, swampy areas in South Florida of U.S.A, North-South of America, low land of Afica, Asia, Australia and Pacific Islands. It grows in swamps, is tolerant of saltwater, and cannot grow in dry soil. Now Pond Apple trees are the wild plants on almost lowland areas of many tropical countries that are referred above. In The United States of America it is common in the Everglades. Its ability to grow in flooded areas and to tolerate salt water has enabled it to spread through much of northern Queensland’s wet tropics area. It now infests more than 2000 ha of the Wet Tropics Bioregion, and threatens melaleuca wetlands and native mangrove communities. Now pond apple trees are wild plants in many lowland areas on the World as South Florida of U.S.A, North of South America, Africa, Southeast Asia, Australia and other Pacific Islands. The fruits are not important and are usually wasted. Although it is edible, the tree would not be planted as a fruit tree and now it is the worst weed and the dangerous invasive plants.
2- Characteristics of Pond Apple Tree and Fruits
2.3- The Uses of Pond apple tree and fruits a- Culinary Uses of Pond Apple Fruit - Uses as fresh fruit Unlike the other Annona species the pulp of the fruit when ripe is yellow to orange instead of white. The fruit is edible for humans and its taste is reminiscent of ripe Honeydew melon. It ripe fruit is usually used as fresh fruit. Some people consider the flavor agreeable, while others have characterized it as “insipid” or “scarcely desirable”. The flavor and texture are considered inferior to the related sweetsop and soursop, and the fruit has never attained popular use (FNA 2011, FOC 2011). - Uses as making food Pond apple ripe fruits can be made into jam and it is a popular ingredient of fresh fruit drinks in many countries, expecially in the Maldives. b- Medicinal Uses A recent study suggests that its alcoholic seed extract contains anticancer compounds that could be used pharmaceutically (Cochrane et al. 2008). c-Other uses of Pond Apple + Young Pond apple trees are used as rootstock for the grafting trees A young Pond apple tree is used as a hardy rootstock for grafts of more commercially desirable related fruits, such as Soursop and Sugar apple trees. - Experiments in South Florida have been made in an attempt to use it as a superior rootstock for Sugar apple or Soursop. While the grafts initially appear to be effective a high percentage of them typically fail over time. Soursop on Pond apple rootstock has a dwarfing effect. - In Southeast Asia and Vietnam, Pond apple is usually used to produce the grafting trees for Soursop, it is called Mãng cầu ghép or Mãng cầu tháp in Vietnam. Through its introduction as a rootstock, however, Pond apple tree has escaped cultivation and become weedy or invasive in Pacific countries including Fiji, French Polynesia, Vietnam, and Australia (PIER 2011). Other than this, it is not cultivated widely. + Seeds of Pond apple are used as Botany insecticide In Viet Nam, seeds of Pond apple are used as Botany insecticide. Seeds are smashed then soak in water, use this solution to spray on vegetables to kill worms and hoppers.
2.4- The Problem of Pond Apple trees on the World ! Pond apple (Annona glabra) is a tropicalfruit tree in the family Annonaceae, in the same genus as the Sweetsop, the Soursop and the Cherimoya. The tree is native to Florida in the United States, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and West Africa. It is common in the Everglades. It grows in swamps, is tolerant of saltwater, and cannot grow in dry soil. Now pond apple trees are wild plants in Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia, the fruits are not important and are usually wasted. It is a very troublesome invasive species in northern Queensland in Australia and Sri Lanka, where it grows in estuaries and chokes mangrove swamps. + Pond Apple is the worst weeds In Australia, Pond apple is a Weed of National Significance. It is regarded as one of the worst weeds in this country because of its invasiveness, potential for spread, and economic and environmental impacts. It can invade fresh, brackish and saltwater areas and its thickets are capable of replacing whole ecosystems. Its seed is primarily dispersed by water, especially during floods. Disturbed flood-prone ecosystems are most at risk from pond apple invasion, particularly mangroves, melaleuca woodlands, riparian areas, drainage lines, coastal dunes and islands (Australian Government 2003). In estuaries and mangrove swamps, it can outcompete grasses and sedges, inhibit germination of Melaleuca species, and alter fire regimes (ISSG 2011). It is categorized as a Class 2 weed in Australia, which indicates that it has spread over substantial areas of Australia (particularly in Queensland), and has serious impacts that must be controlled (Queensland 2007). Its sale in Australia for any purpose is prohibited. + Pond Apple is a dangerous Invasive Species It is a very troublesome invasive species in northern Queensland in Australia and Sri Lanka, where it grows in estuaries and chokes mangrove swamps. Its seedlings carpet the banks and prevent other species from germinating or thriving. It also affects farms as it grows along fencelines and farm drains. It also invades and transforms undisturbed areas. The Global Invasive Species Database describes it as “a highly invasive woody weed that threatens wetland and riparian ecosystems of wet tropics, world heritage areas and beyond.” (ISSG 2011).
3- The Pond Apple tree in Vietnam
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