2.1- Description Annona muricata is a member of the family of custard apple trees of the Genus Annona, Family Annonaceae and a species known mostly for its edible fruits called Soursop. Soursop tree is the evergreentree native to , the Caribbean, Central and northern South America. It is a well known and highly regarded fruit in the tropical regions of Asia and South America but until recently was little known in the West. Soursop (Annona muricata) produces a fruit that is usually called soursop due to its slightly acidic taste when ripe. - The Trunk: Annona muricata is a small, upright, evergreen tree that can grow to about 4-6 metres (13-20 ft) tall. The young branches are hairy. - The Leaves: Leaves are oblong to oval, 8 centimetres (3.1 in) to 16 centimetres (6.3 in) long and 3 centimetres (1.2 in) to 7 centimetres (2.8 in) wide. Glossy dark green with no hairs above, paler and minutely hairy to no hairs below. The leaf stalks are 4 millimetres (0.16 in) to 13 millimetres (0.51 in) long and without hairs. - The Flowers: Flower stalks (peduncles) are 2 millimetres (0.079 in) to 5 millimetres (0.20 in) long and woody. They appear opposite from the leaves or as an extra from near the leaf stalk, each with one or two flowers, occasionally a third. Stalks for the individual flowers (pedicels) are stout and woody, minutely hairy to hairless and 15 millimetres (0.59 in) to 20 millimetres (0.79 in) with small bractlets nearer to the base which are densely hairy. Petals are thick and yellowish. Outer petals meet at the edges without overlapping and are broadly ovate, 2.8 centimetres (1.1 in) to 3.3 centimetres (1.3 in) by 2.1 centimetres (0.83 in) to 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in), tapering to a point with a heart shaped base. Evenly thick, covered with long, slender, soft hairs externally and matted finely with soft hairs within. Inner petals are oval shaped and overlap. 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) to 2.8 centimetres (1.1 in) by 2 centimetres (0.79 in). Sharply angled and tapering at the base. Margins are comparatively thin, with fine matted soft hairs on both sides. The receptacle is conical and hairy. Stamens 4.5 millimetres (0.18 in) long and narrowly wedge-shaped. The connective-tip terminate abruptly and anther hollows are unequal. Sepals are quite thick and do not overlap. Carpels are linear and basally growing from one base. The ovaries are covered with dense reddish brown hairs, 1-ovuled, style short and stigma truncate. - The Fruits: Dark green, prickly (or bristled) fruits are egg-shaped and can be up to 30 centimetres (12 in) long, with a moderately firm texture. Flesh is juicy, acid, whitish and aromatic. The flesh of the fruit consists of an edible, white pulp, some fiber, and a core of indigestible, black seeds. The pulp is also used to make fruit nectar, smoothies, fruit juice drinks, as well as candies, sorbets, and ice cream flavorings. - The Seeds: Abundant seeds the average weight of 1000 fresh seeds is 470 grams (17 oz) and had an average oil content of 24%. When dried for 3 days in 60 °C (140 °F) the average seed weight was 322 grams (11.4 oz) and were tolerant of the moisture extraction; showing no problems for long-term storage under reasonable conditions. Soursop tree (Annona muricata) is tolerant of poor soil and prefers lowland areas between the altitudes of 0 metres (0 ft) to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft). It cannot stand frost.
2.2- Nutritional Value and Other Chemicals of Sourtsop + Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) ofSoursop), raw - from USDA Energy 276 kJ (66 kcal) Carbohydrates 16.84 g Sugars 13.54 g Dietary fiber 3.3 g Fat 0.3 g Protein 1 g Vitamins Thiamine (B1) 0.07 mg (6%) Riboflavin (B2) 0.05 mg (4%) Niacin (B3) 0.9 mg (%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.253 mg (5%) Vitamin B6 0.059 mg (5%) Folate (B9) 14 μg (4%) Choline 7.6 mg (2%) Vitamin C 20.6 mg (25%) Trace metals Calcium 14 mg (1%) Iron 0.6 mg (5%) Magnesium 21 mg (6%) Phosphorus 27 mg (4%) Potassium 278 mg (6%) Sodium 14 mg (1%) Zinc 0.1 mg (1%) Note! + Units: μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams * IU = International units + Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database - Link to USDA Database entry + Other source: Nutrion Fact of Soursop Soursop fruit is rich in fiber and vitamins. The content of dietary fiber in soursop reached 3.3 g per 100 g of fruit flesh. Consumption of 100 g of meat soursop fruit can meet 13 percent of the daily fiber requirement. Vitamins are the most dominant in soursop fruit is vitamin C, which is around 20 mg per 100 grams of fruit flesh. Requirement of vitamin C per person per day (ie 60 mg) can be met only by consuming 300 grams of meat soursop fruit. Fiber is very good to help digestion and detoxification, while vitamin C is an antioxidant that is very good for boosting the immune system and slow the aging process (stay young). Soursop fruit contains very little fat (0.3 g/100 g), so it is good for health. Soursop also contains phosphorus and calcium, respectively 27 and 14 mg per 100 g. Both minerals are important for the formation of bone mass that allows you to build strong bones and prevent osteoporosis. Soursop excellence lies in the content of sodium (sodium) is low (14 mg per 100 g), but high in potassium (potash), which is 278 mg per 100 g. Comparison of high potassium and sodium is very good for preventing hypertension. Source: Amazing Health Benefits And Nutrition Fact Of Soursop.
2.5- The Uses of Soursop Fruits on the World + Culinary Uses of Soursop Fruit Due to the fruit’s widespread cultivation and popularity in parts of Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, soursop and its derivative products are consumed across the world, also via branded food and beverage products available in many countries, including Brazil, Mexico, Canada, the United States, the UK, Ireland and Continental Europe, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore and Vietnam. Because it bruises easily, the fruit is usually harvested unripe. The unripe soursop is dark green in appearance and hard to the touch. Within a few days, the skin turns a lighter shade of green and is softer to the touch. That is the perfect time to eat it. In foods, Soursop is used in cooking and beverages. Traditionally, soursop is simply cut into segments and the white pulp eaten along with the black seeds. A somewhat pulpy fruit, many people prefer to drink squeezed and chilled soursop juice. Also called graviola, soursop is a large, spiny, green tropical fruit with a sweet flesh that is the basis for several beverages, ice creams like rosace vanilla ice cream and other sweet foods popular in South America. Creative cooks are also finding many ways to use soursop in desserts. Soursop cheesecake has a distinctively delicious flavour and texture and it is used in homemade ice creams. Word is spreading fast about this exotic fruit and before long, it may become an Australian staple fruit, just as it is in so many other parts of the world. The flavour has been described as a combination of strawberry and pineapple, with sour citrus flavour notes contrasting with an underlying creamy flavour reminiscent of coconut or banana. - In Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Harar (Ethiopia), it is a common fruit, often used for dessert as the only ingredient, or as an agua fresca beverage; in Colombia and Venezuela, it is a fruit for juices, mixed with milk. Ice cream and fruit bars made of soursop are also very popular. The seeds are normally left in the preparation, and removed while consuming, unless a blender is used for processing. - In Indonesia, dodolsirsak, a sweetmeat, is made by boiling soursop pulp in water and adding sugar until the mixture hardens. Soursop is also a common ingredient for making fresh fruit juices that are sold by street food vendors. - In the Philippines, it is called guyabano, derived from the Spanish guanabana, and is eaten ripe, or used to make juices, smoothies, or ice cream. Sometimes, they use the leaf in tenderizing meat. - In Malaysia, it is known as durian belanda and in East Malaysia, specifically among the Dusun people of Sabah, it is locally known as lampun. Popularly, it is eaten raw when it ripens, or used as one of the ingredients in Ais Kacang or Ais Batu Campur. Usually the fruits are taken from the tree when they mature and left to ripen in a dark corner, whereby they will be eaten when they are fully ripe. It has a white flower with a very pleasing scent, especially in the morning. - In Brunei Darussalam this fruit is popularly known as "Durian Salat", widely available and easily planted. It was most likely brought from Mexico to the Philippines by way of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade. - In Vietnam, this fruit is called mãng cầu Xiêm in the south, or mãng cầu in the north, and is used to make smoothies, or eaten as is. + Medicinal uses of Soursop: Aside from the nutritional benefits of soursop fruit, the fruit, seeds and leaves of anona muricata (the botanical name of the soursop tree) have been used for centuries in a variety of ways in preventive and remedial medical treatments. Some of the traditional treatments include: Soursop fruit seeds are used to treat vomiting. Soursop leaves are made into a poultice and used for treating skin disorders. Soursop fruit pulp is applied directly on wounds to help speed up healing. Soursop root bark is used to treat poisoning. A leaf tea or decoction applied topically is used to get rid of head lice and bed bugs. Although controversial, many people claim soursop may be an effective treatment for cancer. While there is as yet no scientific evidence to back up these claims, it is interesting to note that they are traditional remedies that have been used for centuries. The leaves, fruit, seeds, and stem are used to make medicine. Ripe fruit of Soursop contains many chemicals that may be active against disease-causing agents such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites as well as active against cancer! Despite safety concerns, the ripe fruits of Soursop is used to treat infections caused by bacteria and parasites including leishmaniasis, a disease caused by parasites transmitted through the bite of sand fleas; herpes ; coughs ; and cancer . It is also used to cause vomiting and to empty the bowels. Some people use graviola to help them relax. Soursop is applied to the skin for arthritis. Research Since 1976, Soursop or Graviola has proven to be an immensely potent cancer killer in 20 independent laboratory tests, yet no double-blind clinical trials-the typical benchmark mainstream doctors and journals use to judge a treatment’s value-were ever initiated… A study published in the Journal of Natural Products, following a recent study conducted at Catholic University of South Korea stated that one chemical in Soursop was found to selectively kill colon cancer cells at “10,000 times the potency of (the commonly used chemotherapy drug) Adriamycin…” … The most significant part of the Catholic University of South Korea report is that Soursop was shown to selectively target the cancer cells, leaving healthy cells untouched. Unlike chemotherapy, which indiscriminately targets all actively reproducing cells (such as stomach and hair cells), causing the often devastating side effects of nausea and hair loss in cancer patients… A study at Purdue University recently found that leaves from the Graviola tree killed cancer cells among six human cell lines and were especially effective against prostate, pancreatic and lung cancers… Laboratory research supports the potential benefits of soursop as a remedy for disease. In one study, published in "Journal of Ethnopharmacology," an extract of soursop inhibited the growth of Herpes virus in the laboratory. In addition, the Cancer Center summarizes findings that suggest soursop extracts might slow growth of cancer cells or make them more susceptible to anti-cancer drugs. For example, in one study published in 1997 in "Journal of Medicinal Chemistry," compounds from soursop were tested on breast cancer cells in culture and found to be up to 250 times more effective in killing the cells than some chemotherapy drugs. These laboratory studies with soursop are promising, but research with human subjects is needed to confirm its potential usefulness. Note about Alternative cancer treatment The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center lists cancer treatment as one of the "purported uses" of soursop. According to Cancer Research UK, "Many sites on the internet advertise and promote graviola capsules as a cancer cure, but none of them are supported by any reputable scientific cancer organisations" and "there is no evidence to show that graviola works as a cure for cancer" and consequently they do not support its use as a treatment for cancer. In 2008 a court case relating to the sale in the UK of Triamazon, a soursop product, resulted in the criminal conviction of a man under the terms of the UK Cancer Act for offering to treat people for cancer. A spokesman for the council that instigated the action stated, "it is as important now as it ever was that people are protected from those peddling unproven products with spurious claims as to their effects." The Federal Trade Commission in the United States determined that there was "no credible scientific evidence" that the extract of soursop sold by Bioque Technologies "can prevent, cure, or treat cancer of any kind." Recommendations The recommended intake of soursop fruit or its extract has not been established. However, one fruit contains about 15 milligrams of annonacin, its most studied component, and one can of commercially prepared soursop nectar provides 36 milligrams. Avoid consuming soursop in excess, however, since large quantities of its alkaloid compounds may cause neurological symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease. Do not self-treat with soursop or its extract. Discuss its use with your doctor to decide what is best for your situation. Source: http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/benefits-soursop-4285.html - and other sources.
2.4-The Health Benefits of Soursop Soursop is a well known and highly regarded fruit in the tropical regions of Asia and South America but until recently was little known in the West. In cultures where it occurs naturally it is known not only as a delicious fruit, but as having health and medicinal benefits as well. Soursop has many health benefits. Soursop has so many nutrients, including carbohydrates, fructose, various vitamins and ascorbic acid. Sour-sweet taste of soursop fruit makes it a favorite for a variety of juices and beverages. Soursop sour flavor comes from organic acids, particularly malic acid, citric acid, and the acid isositrat. + The Health Benefits of Soursop including: 1. Curing Cancer By eating the fruit soursop we can help to attack the cancer cells safely and naturally, without side effects such as nausea, weight loss, or hair loss. 2. Increase Immune System Substances contained in soursop fruit such as acetogenins, annocatacin, annocatalin, annohexocin, annonacin, annomuricin, anomurine, anonol, caclourine, gentisic acid, gigantetronin, linoleic acid, muricapentocin. It makes our body stay fit and improved. Help us against disease. 3. Kill malignant cancer cells Soursop leaf has an effective target and kill malignant cells for 12 types of cancer, including colon, breast, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancer. Power works 10,000 times stronger in slowing the growth of cancer cells compared with adriamycin and chemo therapy is commonly used. 4. High Vitamin C Vitamins are the most dominant in soursop fruit is vitamin C, which is around 20 mg per 100 grams of fruit flesh. Requirement of vitamin C per person per day (ie 60 mg), have been met only by consuming 300 grams of meat soursop fruit. The content of vitamin C is high enough on soursop is an excellent antioxidant to increase endurance and slow the aging process (stay young). and is one of the benefits of soursop fruit that we can take 5. Medicine for hemorrhoids and pain reliever In addition to juice drinks are also good to cure hemorrhoids, waist pain, and help your appetite so our appetite good. 6. Rich in Fiber In addition to nutritional components, soursop fruit is also very rich in non-nutritional components. One of them is to contain a lot of fiber (dietary fiber), fiber is very good for digestive health. 7. Preventing Osteoporsis Soursop fruit contains phosphorus and calcium is high enough. Very good for strong bones and to prevent osteoporosis. 8. Increase Energy The content of fructose in soursop can keep you fresh, and can drain energy. This is because fructose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many fruits. This could be a good natural source of carbohydrates for the body. 9. Help cure many disease Soursop fruit juice, taken twice daily, can help overcome kidney disease, liver problems, urinary tract infection (also known as urethritis) and hematuria (blood in the urine or) 10. Preventing Bacterial infections The fleshy part of the fruit, if applied to any cuts will accelerate the healing process and also prevent bacterial infection. 11. Prevent nerve damage and maintain a healthy heart The content of vitamin B1 able to accelerate metabolism, blood circulation, prevents nerve damage, restoring the edges and central nervous disorders. The content of vitamin B2 is required for the body's energy production, fat storage, nervous system function, and maintenance of the heart muscle. + Benefits of Soursop leaves Benefits of soursop leaves have also been studied recently in a study, that the leaves of the soursop tree is very effective for prostate cancer, pancreas and lung. The results of this study turned out to have been stored for many years since ancient times. Even based on 20 laboratory tests on the benefits of soursop leaves taken since 1970 show remarkable results, soursop leaf has excellent properties, such as: - Attacking cancer cells effectively because it does not harm to healthy cells, and does not cause extreme nausea, weight loss and hair loss. - Soursop leaves have an effective target and kill malignant cells for 12 types of cancer, including colon, breast, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancer. - Ability to increase energy in the body. - Increase stamina and fitness. - Helps boost the immune system and avoid deadly infections. - Able to prevent free radicals, and many other benefits. Source: Amazing Health Benefits And Nutrition Fact Of Soursop + The Health Benefits of Eating Soursop Fruit Soursop is a flowering, evergreen tree native to tropical regions of the world. It also contains a long, prickly green fruit which happens to kill cancer up to 10,000 times more effectively than strong chemotherapy drugs, all without the nasty side effects and without harming healthy cells. The fruit's extracts from Annona muricata tree selectively inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells. Beyond its usefulness as a food, however, soursop also contains natural compounds with medicinal properties, making it potentially beneficial for your health. Here are some of the best health benefits of eating soursop fruit. 1. Kills Parasites inside our Body Loaded with a number of nutrients essential for the overall development of body, soursop is made into extract and is sold in health stores and even online. The nutrients present in soursop are amino acids, ascorbic acid, calcium, carbohydrates, iron, phosphorus, fibers, thiamine and riboflavin. 2. Fights Free Radicals The soursop fruit has ascorbic acid which increases the amount of antioxidants in the body and also help keep a number of infections and disorders at bay. 3. Relieves Constipation Since the fruit contains soluble and insoluble fibers, it adds bulk to the stool and facilitates easy elimination from the body. 4. Treat Mouth Ulcers Finely mashing the leaf with water and applying it on the boils will help decrease the size of the ulcers in time curing them completely and also reduce irritation. 5. Get Rids of Bed Bugs and Head Lies The use of soursop leaf decoction. It will not only there’s pests but can also keep them away. Soursop is also used as a remedy for cough, diarrhea, fever and indigestion. Including supplements of soursop will bring down the intensity of these conditions and also enhance recovery. Source: http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-1015620 - Posted August 4, 2013
3.1- The names + Scientific name: Annona muricata + Synonym: Annona sericea + English name: Soursop, Graviola , Guanabana, Brazilian pawpaw, Prickly custard apple + French name: Corossol, Corossolier + Vietnamese names: - In the North of Vietnam it is called: Mang cau (Mãng cầu). - In the South of Vietnam it is called Mang cau xiem (Mãng cầu xiêm) or Mang cau gai (Mãng cầu gai). 3.2- History Soursop trees (Annona muricata) originates from the Caribbean, Central America and South America but are now widely cultivated - and in some areas, escaping and living on their own - in tropical climates throughout the world. Soursop, Sweetsop and Pond apple were introduced to the South Asia and the Southeast Asia before 1590 by European sailors in Columbus Era. The species of Annona has introduced to Vietnam at what time not be known. They could be introduced by the Spanish or Portuguese on their journeys of discovery at that time. In Vietnam this species with numerous cultivars are planted on lowland from the North to the South of country. Specially in the South they are planted any where in the farmer gardens of Mekong Delta.
Soursop tree with fruits
Soursop ripe fruits
See Video: Planting Soursop on Sulfat Acid Soil in Mekong Delta - South Vietnam