1.2- Vernaculars and Scientific names + English name: Sweetsop, Sugar apple, Sugar-apple, Custard apple. + French name: Annone écailleuse, Cachiman cannelle, Pomme cannelle. + Vietnamese names: Na, Mang cau ta (Mãng cầu ta), Mang cau dai (Mãng cầu dai) + Asean Vernaculars: - Indonesian: Srikaya, Srimatikiya, Sirkaja, Sarikaja, Seri kaya, Atis - Malaysian: Buah nona, Nona Sri Kaya, Buah Nona, Sri Kaya, Sarikaya - Philippines: Atis - Thailand: Noina, Noi Na - Laotian: Khièb. - Cambodian: Plae teib - Burmese: Aajaa thee + Scientific name: Annona squamosa Linn. + Synomym: Annona asiatica L. Annona cinerea Dunal Guanabanus squamosus (L.)M.Gómez Xylopia glabra L. Annona forskahlii DC. + Relative species: Soursop (Annona muricata) - Vietnamese: Mang cau, Mang cau xiem, Mang cau gai Pond apple (Annona glabra) - Vietnamese: Binh bat Atemoya (Annona cherimola × squamosa ) - Vietnamese: Mang cau ta lai Curtar Apple (Annona reticulata ) - Its fruits often share the same name Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) - Its fruits often share the same name. Sweetsop and these species are most widely cultivated on the World.
2- The Characteristics of Sweetsop or Sugar-apple tree and fruits
2.1- Description Annona squamosa is a small, well-branched tree or shrub from the family Annonaceae that bears edible fruits called sugar-apples. Sweetsop, sugar-apple, and custard apple are names given to this fruit from South America. In Vietnam it is called Na or Na dai (in the North) and Mang cau ta (Mãng cầu ta) or Mang cau dai (Mãng cầu dai) (in the Shouth). - The tree: The tree of Annona squamosa is a small tree or shrub. It is 3-8 metres (9.8-26 ft) tall very similar to soursop (Annona muricata) with a broad, open crown or irregularly spreading branches and a short trunk, not buttressed at base. Branches with light brown bark and visible leaf scars; inner bark light yellow and slightly bitter; twigs become brown with light brown dots (lenticels - small, oval, rounded spots upon the stem or branch of a plant, from which the underlying tissues may protrude or roots may issue). - The leaves: Thin, simple, alternate leaves occur singly, 5 centimetres (2.0 in) to 17 centimetres (6.7 in) long and 2 centimetres (0.79 in) to 6 centimetres (2.4 in) wide; rounded at the base and pointed at the tip (oblong-lanceolate). Pale green on both surfaces and mostly hairlesswith slight hairs on the underside when young. The sides sometimes are slightly unequal and the leaf edges are without teeth, inconspicuously hairy when young. Leaf stalks are 0.4-2.2 centimetres (0.16-0.87 in) long, green, sparsely pubescent. - The Flowers: Solitary or in short lateral clusters of 2-4, about 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) long, greenish-yellow flowers on a hairy, slender 2 centimetres (0.79 in) long stalk. Three green outer petals, purplish at the base, oblong, 1.6-2.5 centimetres (0.63-0.98 in) long, and 0.6-0.75 centimetres (0.24- 0.30 in) wide, three inner petals reduced to minute scales or absent. Very numerous stamens; crowded, white, less than 1.6 centimetres (0.63 in) long; ovary light green. Styles white, crowded on the raised axis. Each pistil forms a separate tubercle (small rounded wartlike protuberance), mostly 1.3-1.9 centimetres (0.51-0.75 in) long and 0.6-1.3 centimetres (0.24- 0.51 in) wide which matures into the aggregate fruit. Flowering occurs in spring-early summer and flowers are pollinated by nitidulid beetles. - The Fruits: Aggregate and soft fruits form from the numerous and loosely united pistils of a flower which become enlarged and mature into fruits which are distinct from fruits of other species of genus (and more like a giant raspberry instead). The round or heart-shaped greenish yellow, ripened aggregate fruit is pendulous on a thickened stalk; 5-10 centimetres (2.0-3.9 in) in diameter with many round protuberances and covered with a powdery bloom. Fruits are formed of loosely cohering or almost free carpels (the ripened pistels). The pulp is white tinged yellow, edible and sweetly aromatic. - The Seeds: Like the pomegranate, the
sweet-sop is packed with seeds. Each carpel containing an oblong, shiny and smooth, dark brown to black, 1.3-1.6 centimetres (0.51- 0.63 in) long seed. Sugarsop trees tolerates a tropical lowland climate better than its relatives Annona reticulata and Annona cherimola (whose fruits often share the same name) helping make it the most widely cultivated of these species. It is a semi-evergreen shrub or small deciduous tree with size of up to 6 m (20ft) high. It thrives well in the low-lying area of many tropical countries, as it prefers its hot and relatively dry climate. It is easy to grow from seed and from cutting. It adapts well to several type of soil and can be a good landscape tree.
2.3- The Health Benefits from Parts of Sweetso or Sugar Apple tree You can use all parts of sugar apple tree for treatment of certain ailments and the benefits come from the various chemical compounds present in the plant. + The Health Benefits from Sweetsop Ripe Fruits The sugar-apple is a relative of the soursop (guyabano). It is smaller in size and has no soft spikes. Like the soursop it also has sweet, delicious and creamy white flesh and black seeds. The taste is described as a cross between a pear and a coconut. Sugar-apple is one of the fruits that contain protein. The Heath Benefits of Sweetsop Ripe Fruits including: 1. Helps prevent asthma (Vitamin C - 151%) If you’re suffering from asthma, sugar-apple may be good for you. Eating sugar-apple can supply an excellent amount of vitamin C, one of the potent anti-oxidants which may help decrease the risk of developing asthma, a common airway inflammation. 2. Helps control sugar levels (Fiber - 44%) Two sugar-apples can provide over half of the DV of fiber. Dietary fiber has shown to slow down the absorption of sugar in the body and a high fiber diet has been linked with a lower risk of developing type-2 diabetes. 3. Keeps the heart healthy (Vitamin B6 - 25%) How can the sugar-apple apple be heart-friendly? Through its rich vitamin B6 content. This B vitamin has been found to prevent homocystein build-up. A high level of this amino acid in the blood is associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. 4. Lowers blood pressure levels (Potassium - 18%) It is also rich in potassium, the mineral known to regulate blood pressure levels by controlling the effects of sodium in the body. 5. Helps the body produce energy (Thiamin - 18%) Feeling a little tired? Sugar-apple is a good source of thiamin, a nutrient which helps sugar turn into energy. 6. Maintains supply of other B vitamins in the body (Riboflavin -17%) One of the important roles of riboflavin in the body is to see to it that the body has all the other needed B vitamins. The B vitamins are a group of water-soluble vitamins which are essential for growth, development and other important bodily functions. 7. Keeps bones strong (Magnesium - 13%) Magnesium is now one of the minerals added in bone strengthening supplements as they have proven to be effective together with calcium in increasing bone density and keeping the bones strong. Nuts, legumes and leafy greens are some of the highest sources of magnesium. 8. Helps lower cholesterol levels (Niacin - 11%) Sweetsop is packed with is niacin, a B vitamin which has been found to be effective in increasing the good cholesterol in the body. 9. Helps maintain thyroid health (Copper - 11%) Sugar-apple contains a good amount of copper, a trace mineral that is important for the production of the thyroid hormone called thyroxine. 10. Help prevent pregnancy problems (Folate - 9%) Did you know that folate is one of the B vitamins? It is also called vitamin B9. Folate is best known for its very important role in conception especially in preventing neural tube problems for the baby. Folate rich fruits include avocados, guavas and papayas. Source: 10-health-benefits-of-sweetsop-sugar-apple/ Other Health Benefits of Sweetsop Fruits - A muscle rub for arthritis, and taken internally for the painful inflammation of arthritis - To regulate the menstrual cycle, drink in a tea or eaten - One part rosemary oil and two parts olive oil rubbed into the scalp for growth and health of the hair - There are anti-bacterial properties in rosemary, so soaking a cloth and pressing it to the underarm aids in controlling offensive body odors - Rosemary is one of the oils used by aroma therapists to aid in fighting depression. It contains cineole which aids the central nervous system - To revive a fainting victim place a drop or two of rosemary oil on a cloth and place under the nose. - For muscle soreness toss a bag of rosemary into the bath water and relax - To keep skin more supple and youthful drink rosemary tea and add rosemary to your favorite skincare regimen - Rosemary improves circulation and blood flow to the head and brain - Improves concentration - Reduces the severity of asthma attacks - Boosts your immune system - Reduces swelling. Source:http://www.naturalfoodbenefits.com/display.asp?CAT=1&ID=117 + The Health Benefits from Other Parts of Sweetsop tree Sugar Apple Root The root contains tannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, kamphor and anonain, which are all essesntials for the treatment of mental depression, constipation and back pain. Sugar Apple Leaves The leaves have oil that are rich in sesquiterpenes and terpenes, used in fragrances to give a woody spicy smell. The leaves also have a bitter taste and used to treat fever, cough, head lice, intestinal worms, ulcers, eczema and lower your blood uric acid level. Sugar Apple Tree Bark The bark contains borneol, kamphor and flavonoids; and act as a good astringent and tonic for diarrhea, wounds and dysentery. Young Sugar Apple Fruit The young unripe fruit contain tannins and used for treatment of indigestion and diarrhea. Sugar Apple Fruit Seeds The seed contain acetogenins and used to rid head lice, fleas, and insects. Source:http://greatstuff.hubpages.com/hub/Sweetsop-or-Sugar-Apple-Trees
2.4- The Uses of Sweetsop or Sugar Apple on the World Sweetsop or Sugar Apple tree is one of nature's wonder tree where almost all parts of the tree, from its root to the leaves and fruits, can be use either as remedy for certain ailments or eaten as food. a- Culinary Uses of Soursop Fruit Sugar applefruit is round to conical, 5-10 cm (2.0-3.9 in) in diameter and 6-10 cm (2.4-3.9 in) long, and weighing 100-240 g (3.5-8.5 oz), with a thick rind composed of knobby segments. The color is typically pale green to blue-green, with a deep pink blush in certain varieties, and typically has a bloom. It is unique among Annona fruits in being segmented, and the segments tend to separate when ripe, exposing the interior. The flesh is fragrant and sweet, creamy white to light yellow, and resembles and tastes like custard and usually eaten fresh or used as an ingredient for cakes, beverages and shakes. It has a high carbohydrate, energy source, protein content (a good source of thiamine) and rich in vitamin C, vitamin B (B2, B3 B5, B9), calcium, potassium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and potassium in fair quantities. Sugar apple is ripe to eat if the skin feel soft when pressed gently. You can then put them in a food container and store them in the fridge and it can last up to 5 days. To eat the fruit, it must be ripe and soft. You can eat it by scooping the pulp with a tablespoon into your mouth. Then while enjoying the delicious flesh, try to separate the seeds in the mouth and then spitting it out. Sugar apple taste better when served cold so place them in the fridge for at least three hours before eating. Sugar apple however, is high in calories so it will not be too friendly if you are on weight management program. The Sugar Apple Fruits can be used as an ingredient for cakes, jam, beverages, wine and shakes. In the Philippine has a company produces sugar apple wine. b- Medicinal Uses of Sweetysop plants + Folkloric Medicines - Salted bruised leaves used to hasten suppuration. - Bark decoction is used as tonic and to stop diarrhea. - Root has purgative action. - Leaf decoction used for rheumatic baths to alleviate pain. - For fainting and hysteria, crush fresh leaves and place over nose. - For infected insect bites, pound and extract the juice from one unripe fruit and apply the juice directly to the affected areas, 3 times daily. - In Northern India, young leaves used for diabetes. - In Malaysia, used for skin infections, diarrhea, dysentery and UTIs. - If you have ulcers, take the sweetsop's leaves then wash and milled into powder. Add a bit of water and salt. Put this paste over your ulcer and bandage it properly. Change daily and do this it for about 2-3 days. - If your children have intestinal worms, you may try this natural remedy. Wash and boil about 15 pieces of sweetsop leaves with 5 cups water. Continue boiling until you get about half of the original quantity i.e. about 3 cup. Strain the mixture and once cool drink three times daily. This will also work in adults suffering from intestinal worms. Note: It is not recommended for pregnant women to drink this boiled sweetsop drink mixture. + Modern Medicines • Anti-Inflammatory / Cyclic Peptides: Study yielded two new cyclic peptides, cyclosquamosin H and I, together with six known cyclic peptides, squamin A, squamin B, cyclosquamosin A, D E and cherimolacyclopeptide B from the seeds. • Cytotoxicity / Anticancer: Extracts of A squamosa fruit pericarp was tested for cytotoxic activity against Dalton's lymphoma cells and HeLa cells. The chloroform extract was found cytotoxic to the different cell lines tested and suggests the potential for AS fruit pericarp for the development of treatment for cancers. • Antidiabetic: (1) Beneficial effects of Annona squamosa extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: Study results showed that A. squamosa extract has an antihyperglycemic effect and alleviated liver and renal damage associated with STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in rats. (2) Study of aqueous leaf extracts were investigated on STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. The diabetic groups treated with aqueous leaf extract were compared with standard glibenclamide. • Anti-Cancer / Squadiolins: Mono-tetrahydrofuran Annonaceous Acetogenins from Annona squamosa as Cytotoxic Agents and Calcium Ion Chelators: Squadiolins A and B showed potency against human Hep G2 and 3B hepatoma and MCF-y breast cancer cells. • Hepatoprotective / DEN-induced Hepatotoxicity: Study on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver injury in Swiss albino mice showed hepatoprotective effect, with improvement in biochemical parameters and confirmation by histopathological studies. • Hepatoprotective: Study showed the extracts of Annona squamosa were not able to completely revert the hepatic injury induced by isoniazid + rifampin, but it could limit the effect of the drugs on the liver. The effect compared with standard drug silymarin. • Antibacterial: Study screened the ethanol crude extract of the fruit of A squamosa for antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic microorganisms. It showed inhibitory activity against S aureus and S pneumoniae. Results conclude the plant extract may serve as a valuable source of compounds with therapeutic antibiotic potentials. • Antithyroid Activity / Quercetin: Extract of the seeds of A squamosa was evaluated for it ameliorative effect in the regulation of hyperthyroidism in a mouse model. Phytochemical study revealed the presence of quercetin in the seed extract and the results of the effects of quercetin suggest an involvement of this phytochemical in the mediation of antithyroidal activity of A squamosa seed extract. • Antigenotoxic Activity: Study showed both aqueous and ethanolic bark extracts of A squamosa showed antigenotoxic effect. The bark extract demonstrated more prominent antigenotoxic effect in DBMA induced genotoxicity in Syrian hamsters. • Antiplasmodial Activity: Methanolic extract of Annona squamosa leaves showed high antiplasmodial activity. Preliminary studies yielded terpenoids and traces of phenolic principles with no alkaloids, tannins or flavonoids. • Molluscicidal Activity: Study on molluscicidal activity of leaves, bark and seed of Annona squamosa against snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. Highest activity was observed in the seed extracts. The acetogenins from the seed were more toxic than synthetic pesticides. • Anti-Head Lice Activity: Study identified the active compounds against head lice from the hexane extract of Annona squamosa seeds. The two major compounds were oleic acid and triglyceride with one oleate ester. The triglyceride with one oleate ester and the crude hexane extract diluted with coconut oil 1:1 were found to kill all tested head lice. • Lipoxygenase Inhibition: Study yielded from the seeds a novel lipoxygenase inhibitor fatty acid ester, (+) - annonlipoxy, which showed enzyme inhibitory activity against lipoxygenase. The crude ethanolic extract of fruit pulp and seeds of AS also exhibited lipoxygenase inhibition. • Hepatoprotective / INH-Rifampicin Induced Enzyme Elevation: Administration of methanolic extracts of A. squamosa significantly prevented isoniazid-rifampicin-induced elevation in liver marker enzymes, together with increased total protein and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. • Gestational Malformation Alleviation: Study diabetic albino rats concluded the gestational use of A. squamosa tends to alleviate the diabetes induced fetal malformations. • Antimicrobial / Phytochemicals: Phytochemial screening yielded phenols, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavanoids, reducing sugars and oil. The methanol extract showed maximum antibacterial activity against E. coli. Seed extract showed maximum antifungal activity against T. rubrum. • Antimalarial Alkaloids: Bark extract yielded N-Nitrosoxylopine, roemerolidine and duguevalline. All compounds showed moderate activity against a chloroquine-sensitive strain and a chloroquine-resistant strain of Pl falcifarum. • Antioxidant / Leaves: Extract of leaves showed only moderate scavenging activity of superoxide radicals and antilipid peroxidation potential. • Antioxidant / Stem Bark: Extract of stem bark was evaluated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus coagulans and Escherichia coli. Results showed activity on test bacteria. • Hypoglycemic / Leaves: Hot water extract of leaves showed a beneficial effect in controlling elevated blood glucose in alloxan and STZ-induced diabetic rabbit and rat models. Preliminary data suggest various mechanisms: pancreatic release of insulin and uptake of glucose through specific receptor. • Cytotoxic Acetogenins / Seeds / Anticancer on Five Tumor Cell Lines: Study of seeds isolated six new annonaceious acetogenins, annosquacins A-D, annosquatin A and annosquatin B. The compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in vitro against five human tumor cell lines, and 5 and 6 showed high selectivity toward MCF-7 and A-549 cell lines. Source: http://www.stuartxchange.com/Atis.html c- Other Uses of Sweetsop + Annoninsare a group of chemical compounds classified as acetogenins. They are found in the extracts of Annonaseeds. Some annonins are used as the active ingredients in insecticides for Helicoverpa and other caterpillar pests. - Heat-extracted oil from the seeds has been employed against agricultural pests. High concentrations are potent for 2 days and weaken steadily, all activity being lost after 8 days. See also . - In Mexico, the leaves are rubbed on floors and put in hens' nests to repel lice. + For lice infestation of the head, atis has a herbal treatment regimen: (1)- Shampoo hair with gugo bark or any commercial shampoo daily for one week; with "suyod" combing twice daily. (2)- For lice eggs (nits), apply hot vinegar for half an hour after shampooing; then "suyod" (fine combing) thoroughly. (3)- Bedtime, pound 1/2 cup of atis seeds and mix with 1/4 cup of oil. Apply mixture thoroughly to the scalp and hair. Wrap the hair and head overnight. Shampoo in the morning and follow with fine tooth combing. Do daily for 3-5 days. (4)- Paste of the crushed seeds in water, applied to the scalp. The same used as abortifacient applied to the os uteri. + In India, sugar apple is used as hair tonic and its seeds are grounded and used as tonic to rid of hair lice. Note! Be careful when you do this as the tonic if gets in the eye can cause blindness. It can also be used against agricultural pest. Use it immediately as its effectiveness will not last long if kept for more than a few days.